Project Description

 

Translated by: Usama ibn Suhaib Hasan
Table of Contents
  1. Introduction
      1. Reasons Behind The Compilation Of This Book
      2. Methodology Of This Book
      3. Sayings Of The Imaams Regarding Following The Sunnah And Ignoring Their Views Contradictory To It
        1. 1) Abu Haneefah (Rahimahullaah)
        2. 2) Maalik Ibn Anas (Rahimahullaah)
        3. 3) Shaafi’i (Rahimahullaah)
        4. 4) Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (Rahimahullaah)
        5. The Imaams’ Followers Leaving Their Views If These Contradicted The Sunnah
    1. Misconceptions Cleared
      1. Misconception One
      2. Misconception Two
      3. Misconception Three
      4. Misconception Four
  2. The Prophet’s Prayer Described
    1. Facing The Ka’bah
    2. Standing In Prayer
      1. The Prayer Of A Sick Person In A Sitting Position
      2. Prayer On A Ship
      3. Sitting And Standing In The Night Prayer (Tahajjud)
      4. Prayer Wearing Shoes And The Command To Do So
      5. Prayer On The Pulpit (Minbar)
      6. The Sutrah, And The Obligation To Have One
      7. What Breaks The Prayer
      8. Prohibition Of Prayer Facing The Grave
    3. Intention
    4. Takbeer
      1. Raising The Hands
      2. To Place The Right Arm On The Left Arm, And The Command For It
      3. To Place The Hands On The Chest
    5. To Look At The Place Of Prostration, And Humility
    6. Opening Supplications (Du’aa’s)
    7. Recitation
      1. Recitation Of One Verse At A Time
      2. The Necessity Of Al-Faatihah, And Its Excellence
      3. The Abrogation Of Recitation Behind The Imaam In The Loud Prayers
      4. The Obligation To Recite In The Quiet Prayers
      5. The Aameen, And The Imaam’s Saying It Loudly
      6. The Recitation After Al-Faatihah
      7. Combining Similar Soorahs And Others In One Rak’ah
      8. The Permissibility Of Reciting Al-Faatihah Only
      9. Quiet And Loud Recitation In The Five Prayers And Others
      10. Quiet And Loud Recitation In The Night Prayer (Tahajjud)
      11. What He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi Wa Sallam) Used To Recite In The Different Prayers
        1. 1 – Fajr Prayer
        2. Recitation In The Sunnah Prayer Before Fajr
        3. 2- Zuhr Prayer
        4. Recitation Of Aayaat After Al-Faatihah In The Last Two Rak’ahs
        5. 3- ‘asr Prayer
        6. 4- Maghrib Prayer
        7. 5- ‘ishaa’ Prayer
        8. 6- Night Prayer (Tahajjud)
        9. 7- Witr Prayer
        10. 8- Friday Prayer
        11. 9-‘eid Prayer
        12. 10- Funeral Prayer
      12. Tarteel (Recitation In Slow, Rhythmic Tones), & Making The Voice Beautiful When Reciting
      13. Correcting The Imaam
      14. Seeking Refuge & Spitting Lightly During Prayer In Order To Repel Temptation
    8. The Rukoo’ (Bowing)
      1. The Rukoo’ Described
      2. The Obligation Of Being At Ease In Rukoo’
      3. The Adhkaar Of Rukoo’
      4. Lengthening The Rukoo’
      5. Forbiddance Of Reciting The Qur’aan In Rukoo’
      6. Straightening Up From The Rukoo’, & What Is To Be Said Then
      7. Lengthening This Standing, & The Obligation To Beat Ease In It
    9. The Sujood (Prostration)
      1. Going Down Into The Sajdah On The Hands
      2. The Sajdah Described
      3. The Obligation To Be At Ease In Sujood
      4. The Adhkaarof Sujood
      5. Forbiddance Of Reciting The Qur’aan In Sujood
      6. Lengthening The Sajdah
      7. The Excellence Of The Sajdah
      8. Sajdah On The Ground, And On Mats
      9. Rising From Sajdah
      10. To Sit Muftarishan Between The Two Sajdahs
      11. Iq’aa’ Between The Two Sajdahs
      12. The Obligation Of Being At Ease Between The Two Sajdahs
      13. Lengthening The Sitting Between The Two Sajdahs
      14. The Adhkaar Between The Two Sajdahs
      15. The Second Sajdah
      16. The Sitting Of Rest
      17. Supporting Oneself With The Hands On Rising For The Next Rak’ah
    10. The Second Rak’ah
      1. The Obligation Of Reciting Soorah Al-Faatihah In Every Rak’ah
    11. The First Tashahhud
      1. Moving The Finger In Tashahhud
      2. The Obligation Of The First Tashahhud, & The Validity Of Supplication During It
      3. The Manner Of Tashahhud
      4. As-Salaah ‘alaa An-Nabiyy(Sending Prayers On The Prophet) – Its Place & Manner
      5. Important Notes About As-Salaah ‘alaa An-Nabiyy – Sending Prayers On The Prophet Of The Ummah
      6. Du’aa’ In The First Tashahhud
      7. Standing Up For The Third, And Then The Fourth, Rak’ah
      8. Qunoot In The Five Prayers Because Of A Calamity
      9. Qunoot In Witr Prayer
    12. The Final Tashahhud
      1. The Obligation Of This Tashahhud
      2. The Obligation Of Sending Prayers On The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi Wa Sallam) In This Tashahhud
      3. The Obligation To Seek Refuge From Four Things Before Supplicating
      4. Supplication Before The Salaam, & Its Various Types
    13. The Tasleem (Salutation Of Peace)
      1. The Obligation Of The Tasleem
    14. Addendum
    15. Appendix 1
    16. Appendix 2
    17. Appendix 3
    18. Appendix 4
    19. Appendix 5
    20. Appendix 6
    21. Appendix 7
    22. Appendix 8
    23. Glossary
    24. Author’s Bibliography

 

Introduction

Praise be to Allaah, who made Prayer compulsory on his slaves and ordered them to establish it and perform it well; who linked success and felicity to humility in Prayer; who made it the criterion to distinguish between Eeman and Kufr ; and who made it a restrainer from shameful and unjust deeds.

Prayers and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad, who was addressed in the Words of the Exalted:

“And We have sent down to you the Message, that you may explain clearly to the people what is sent for them”1, and who fully carried out this task. The Prayer was one of the most important things which he explained to the people, verbally and practically, even praying on the pulpit once – standing, bowing and prostrating, and then saying to them, I have done this so that you may follow me and learn my prayer.2 He obligated us to copy him in his prayer, saying, Pray as you have seen me praying.3 He also gave the good tidings to whoever prayed like him that such a person has a covenant with Allaah that He will enter him into the Garden, saying, There are five prayers which Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, has made compulsory: he who performs ablution well for them, prays them at their proper times, and is complete in their bowings, prostrations and humility, he has a guarantee from Allaah that He will forgive him; but he who does not do so, has no guarantee from Allaah: if He wishes, He will forgive him or if He wishes, He will punish him.4

Prayers and peace be also on his family and his pious and just Companions, who passed on to us his worship, prayer, sayings and actions (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and who made these, and these alone, a Madhhab and a path for them to follow; and also on those who follow in their footsteps and tread their path until the Day of Judgment.

When I finished reading the book of prayer in At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb by al-Haafiz al-Mundhiri (rahimahullaah) and teaching it to our brothers, four years ago, it became clear to us all the important position of the Prayer in Islaam; and the reward, grace and respect awaiting those who establish and perform it well; and that all this varies, depending on its closeness to the Prophet’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). This is what he indicated in his saying, Verily the slave prays a prayer of which nothing is written down for him except a tenth, ninth, eighth, seventh, sixth, fifth, quarter, third or half of it.5 Therefore, I reminded the brothers that it is not possible for us to perform prayer as it should be performed, or even approach that, unless we know the detailed description of the Prophet’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), including its essentials, manners, forms, supplications (du’aas) and remembrances (adhkaar), and then we make an effort to put that knowledge into practice carefully, for then we could hope that our prayers would restrain us from shameful and unjust deeds, and that the reward and blessings mentioned in the narrations would be written down for us.

However, detailed familiarity with all these aspects of prayer is unlikely to be achieved by most people nowadays, even many scholars, because of their limiting themselves to a particular Madhhab. But, as anyone concerned with assisting in compiling and studying the purified Sunnah knows, in every Madhhab there are sunnahs which are not found in other Madhhabs; moreover, in every Madhhab there are sayings and actions which cannot be authentically traced back to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – most of these are found in the sayings of the later scholars6, many of whom we see firmly attributing these to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)!7 This is why the scholars of Hadeeth – may Allaah reward them well – have produced books of Takhreej on the famous books of the later scholars, explaining the rank of each hadeeth given in them: whether e.g. authentic, weak or fabricated. Examples of these books of Takhreej are: Al-‘Inaayah fi Ma’rifah Ahaadeeth al- Hidaayah and At-Turuq wal-Wasaa’il fi Takhreej Ahaadeeth Khulaasah ad-Dalaa’il by Shaikh ‘Abdul Qaadir ibn Muhammad al- Qurashi al-Hanafi; Nasb ar-Raayah li Ahaadeeth al-Hidaayah by Haafiz Zayla’i, and its abridged version ad-Dirayah by Haafiz Ibn Hajr al-Asqalaani, who also wrote Talkhees al-Habeer fi Takhreej Ahaadeeth ar-Raafi’i al-Kabir; there are many others, naming which will only lengthen this discussion.8

 

Reasons behind the Compilation of this Book, and some of its Features

Since I had not come across a comprehensive book covering this topic, I felt obliged to produce a book which collected together as many features of the Prophet’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) from the takbeer to the tasleem as possible, for the benefit of my Muslim brothers who wished to follow the guidance of their Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in their worship, such that it would be easy for any who truly loved the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to use this book to fulfil his command, “Pray as you have seen me praying.”

Thus I embarked on a difficult task, and researched the relevant ahaadeeth from the various sources of Hadeeth, the book in your hands being the end result of it all. I stipulated on myself that I would only give ahaadeeth which had an authentic sanad according to the principles and regulations of the science of Hadeeth. I disregarded any hadeeth which depended on unknown or weak narrators, whether it dealt with the outward form, adhkaar, excellence, etc. of the Prayer. This is because I hold that the authentic ahadeeth9 are sufficient, leaving no need for anything weak, for the latter does not amount to anything except zann (conjecture, suspicion), and incorrect conjecture at that; as the Exalted says:

“… And conjecture is of no use against the truth”10

and the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, Beware of suspicion, for truly, suspicion is the most false of speech.11 Therefore, we cannot worship Allaah by acting according to inauthentic ahaadeeth; in fact, the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) forbade us from this saying, Keep away from saying things about me, except what you know12; since he has forbidden us from relating weak narrations, it goes without saying that it is forbidden to act according to them.

I have compiled the book as two texts: the main text and the subsidiary text.

The main text includes the text of ahaadeeth or phrases taken from them, as well as appropriate words to string them together to give the book a fluency from start to finish. I have been careful to preserve the text of each hadeeth as it is found in the books of Sunnah; where a hadeeth has different wordings, I have chosen the version which best fits the fluency etc., but I have brought together other wordings thus: “(in one version: … )” or “(in one narration: …)”. Only rarely have I given the Companion who narrated the hadeeth, or explained in the main text which of the Imaams of Hadeeth have collected each hadeeth, in order to provide easier reading and reference.

As for the subsidiary text, it is a commentary on the main text. In it I have traced the ahaadeeth to their sources, exploring their various versions and routes of narration. Along with this, I have commented on their isnaads and supporting narrations, with authenticating and disparaging remarks on narrators, whether authentic or weak, judged according to the rules of the science of Hadeeth. Often, one route of narration has additional words which are not found in other routes, so I have inserted these into the original hadeeth in the main text whenever it is possible to do so without destroying the fluency, enclosing the addition in square brackets: […], usually without stating which of the sources were alone in containing that addition. This has been done only if the hadeeth is originally on the authority of the same Companion, otherwise I have given it separately, e.g. in the opening supplications etc. This insertion of additional wordings is a tremendous advantage which you will not find in many books – Praise be to Allaah, by Whose Favour good actions are completed.

Next, I have mentioned in the subsidiary text the madhhabs of the scholars regarding the hadeeth traced, as well as the evidence and counter-evidence for each view, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each argument. We have then selected out of that the correct view which we have given in the main text. Also in the subsidiary text, we have given some issues for which there is no text in the Sunnah, but which require ijtihaad, and do not come under the title of this book.

Since the publication of this book with both main and subsidiary texts is not feasible right now due to various reasons, we have decided to publish only the main text of the book (along with brief footnotes) by Allaah’s Will, and named it “Sifah Salaah an-Nabi (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), min at-takbeer ilaa at-tasleem ka’annaka taraahaa (The Prophet’s Prayer Described, from beginning to end, as though you were watching it)”.

I ask Allaah to make this work sincerely for His Face, and to help my brothers in faith to benefit from it, for He is the Hearer, the Answerer.

Methodology of this Book

Since the purpose of this book is to convey the guidance of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) regarding Prayer, it was elementary that I would not limit myself to a particular Madhhab, for the reasons mentioned previously. Therefore, I would give whatever is authentically proved from him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), as has always been the way of the scholars of Hadeeth13, whether of old or of the recent past14, as the excellent saying goes:

The People of Hadeeth are the People of the Messenger, although They accompany him not, they are with his every movement.15

Thus this book would, Allaah Willing, gather whatever is relevant to each topic from the various contents of the books of Hadeeth and the books on the differences between the Madhhabs, such that the correct verdicts found in this book would not be found totally in any one Madhhab. Hence the one acting on it, Allaah Willing, would be among those whom Allaah had guided “by His Grace to the Truth concerning that in which they differed, for Allaah guides whom He will to a path that is straight.”16

When I adopted these principles for myself, i.e. to adhere to the authentic Sunnah, and to implement them in this book as well as others, I knew for sure that this would not satisfy every group of people or sect; in fact, it would result in some, if not most of them, insulting or criticising me. This does not matter to me, for I also know that to please everyone is an unattainable notion, and that “He who pleases the people by angering Allaah, Allaah will entrust him to the people”, as the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said.17 The reward is with Allaah for the author of the following lines:

Nor could I ever escape from abuse, Even were I in a cave in a rugged mountain; For who can escape from the people unharmed, Even if he hides behind the eagle’s wings?

It is enough for me that I believe that this is the most upright way, which Allaah has commanded the believers to take; which our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), Chief of the Messengers, has explained. This is the path which was trodden by the Pious Predecessors: the Companions, their Successors and those after them, including the four Imaams to whose Madhhabs the majority of Muslims today attribute themselves. All of them were agreed on the obligation to stick to the Sunnah and to refer to it; to ignore every view contradictory to it, no matter how great the holder or propounder of that view, for the status of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is far greater, and his example is far truer. Because of this, I have acted on their guidance, followed in their footsteps and carried out their commands to stick to the authentic hadeeth, even if this opposes their view. These commands of theirs have influenced me greatly in my perusal of this path, and my rejection of blind taqleed (following of opinion). I ask Allaah Exalted to reward them greatly.

 

Sayings Of The Imaams Regarding Following The Sunnah And Ignoring Their Views Contradictory To It

It would be beneficial if we gave some of these here, for perhaps this will admonish or remind those who follow the opinion of the Imaams – nay, of those far below the Imaams in rank – blindly18, sticking to their madhhabs or views as if these had descended from the heavens! But Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, says:

“Follow (O men!) the revelation given to you from your Lord, and follow not, as friends and protectors, other than Him. Little is it you remember of admonition.”19

1) Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah)

The first of them is Abu Haneefah Nu’maan ibn Thaabit, whose companions have narrated from him various sayings and diverse warnings, all of them leading to one thing: the obligation to accept the Hadeeth, and to give up following the opinions of the imaams which contradict it:

  1. “When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, then that is my madhhab.”20
  2. “It is not permitted21 for anyone to accept our views if they do not know from where we got them.”22

In one narration, “It is prohibited23 for someone who does not know my evidence to give verdicts24 on the basis of my words.”

Another narration adds, “… for we are mortals: we say one thing one day, and take it back the next day.”

In another narration, “Woe to you, O Ya’qub25! Do not write down everything you hear from me, for it happens that I hold one opinion today and reject it tomorrow, or hold one opinion tomorrow and reject it the day after tomorrow.”26

  1. “When I say something contradicting the Book of Allaah the Exalted or what is narrated from the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then ignore my saying.”27

2) Maalik ibn Anas (rahimahullaah)

As for Imaam Maalik ibn Anas, he said:

  1. “Truly I am only a mortal: I make mistakes (sometimes) and I am correct (sometimes). Therefore, look into my opinions: all that agrees with the Book and the Sunnah, accept it; and all that does not agree with the Book and the Sunnah, ignore it.”28
  2. “Everyone after the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) will have his sayings accepted and rejected – not so the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).”29
  3. Ibn Wahb said: “I heard Maalik being asked about cleaning between the toes during ablution. He said, ‘The people do not have to do that.’ I did not approach him until the crowd had lessened, when I said to him, ‘We know of a sunnah about that.’ He said, ‘What is that ?’ I said, ‘Laith ibn Sa’d, Ibn Lahee’ah and ‘Amr ibn al-Haarith narrated to us from Yazeed ibn ‘Amr al-Ma’aafiri from Abu ‘Abdur-Rahman al-Hubuli from Mustawrid ibn Shaddaad al-Qurashi who said, ‘I saw the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) rubbing between his toes with his little finger.’ He said, ‘This hadeeth is sound; I had not heard of it at all until now.’ Afterwards, I heard him being asked about the same thing, on which he ordered cleaning between the toes.”30

3) Shaafi’i (rahimahullaah)

As for Imaam Shaafi’i, the quotations from him are most numerous and beautiful31, and his followers were the best in sticking to them:

  1. “The sunnahs of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) reach, as well as escape from, every one of us. So whenever I voice my opinion, or formulate a principle, where something contrary to my view exists on the authority of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then the correct view is what the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has said, and it is my view.”32
  2. “The Muslims are unanimously agreed that if a sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is made clear to someone, it is not permitted33 for him to leave it for the saying of anyone else.”34
  3. “If you find in my writings something different to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then speak on the basis of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and leave what I have said.”

In one narration: “… then follow it (the Sunnah), and do not look sideways at anyone else’s saying.”35

  1. “When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, then that is my madhhab.”36
  2. “You37 are more knowledgeable about Hadeeth than I, so when a hadeeth is saheeh, inform me of it, whether it is from Kufah, Basrah or Syria, so that I may take the view of the hadeeth, as long as it is saheeh.”38
  3. “In every issue where the people of narration find a report from the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to be saheeh which is contrary to what I have said, then I take my saying back, whether during my life or after my death.”39
  4. “If you see me saying something, and contrary to it is authentically-reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then know that my intelligence has departed.”40
  5. “For everything I say, if there is something authentic from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) contrary to my saying, then the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) comes first, so do not follow my opinion.”41
  6. “Every statement on the authority of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is also my view, even if you do not hear it from me.”42

4) Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullaah)

Imaam Ahmad was the foremost among the Imaams in collecting the Sunnah and sticking to it, so much so that he even “disliked that a book consisting of deductions and opinions be written.”43 Because of this he said:

  1. “Do not follow my opinion; neither follow the opinion of Maalik, nor Shaafi’i, nor Awzaa’i, nor Thawri, but take from where they took.”44

In one narration: “Do not copy your Deen from anyone of these, but whatever comes from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions, take it; next are their Successors, where a man has a choice.”

Once he said: “Following45 means that a man follows what comes from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions; after the Successors, he has a choice.”46

  1. “The opinion of Awzaa’i, the opinion of Maalik, the opinion of Abu Haneefah: all of it is opinion, and it is all equal in my eyes. However, the proof is in the narrations (from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions).”47
  2. “Whoever rejects a statement of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is on the brink of destruction.”48

These are the clear, lucid sayings of the Imaams (Allaah Exalted be pleased with them) about sticking to the Hadeeth and forbidding the following of their opinion without clearly- visible evidence, such that mere opinion and interpretation is not acceptable.

Hence, whoever adhered to whatever of the Sunnah that was proved authentic, even if it opposed some of the Imaams’ sayings, he would not be conflicting with their madhhab, nor straying from their path; rather, such a person would be following all of them and would be grasping the most trustworthy hand-hold, which never breaks. However, this would not be the case with the one who abandoned any of the authentic Sunnah simply because it contradicted their views; nay, such a person would be being disobedient to them and opposing their above mentioned sayings, while Allaah says:

“But no, by Your Lord, they can have no (real) faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.”49.

He also says:

“Then let those beware who withstand the Messenger’s order, lest some trial befall them or a grievous penalty be inflicted on them.”50

Haafiz Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (rahimahullaah) says:

“Therefore it is obligatory on anyone who hears of a command of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) or knows it, to explain it to the Ummah, advise them sincerely, and order them to follow his command, even if it contradicts the opinion of someone great. This is because the authority of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has the most right to be respected and followed, over and above the opinion of anyone great who has unknowingly contradicted the Messenger’s command in any matter. This is why the Companions and those after would refute anyone who contradicted the authentic Sunnah, sometimes being very stern in their refutation51, not out of hatred for that person, for they loved and respected him, but because the Messenger of Allaah was more beloved to them, and his command was superior to the command of any other created being. Hence, when the order of the Messenger and that of someone else conflicted, the order of the Messenger would be more fitting to be enforced and followed. None of this would stop them respecting the person they had opposed because they knew that he would be forgiven52; in fact, the latter would not mind his instruction being opposed when the command of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was clearly shown to be opposite.”53

Indeed, how could they mind that, when they had ordered their followers to do so, as we have seen, and had enjoined on them to abandon any of their views which contradicted the Sunnah. In fact, Imaam Shaafi’i (rahimahullaah) told his companions to attribute the authentic Sunnah to him also, even if he had not adopted it or had adopted something contradictory to it. Hence, when the analyst Ibn Daqeeq al-‘Eid (rahimahullaah) collected together, in a bulky volume, the issues in which one or more of the four Imaams’ madhhabs had contradicted the authentic hadeeth, he wrote at the beginning of it, “It is prohibited to attribute these answers to the Mujtahid Imaams, and obligatory on the jurists who follow their opinions to know of these so that they do not quote them regarding these and thus lie against them.”54

The Imaams’ Followers Leaving their Views if these Contradicted the Sunnah

Due to all that we have mentioned, the disciples of the Imaams, a number of people from those of old, and a few from those of later time55, would not accept all of their Imaam’s views; they actually ignored many when they found them to be clearly against the Sunnah. Even the two Imaams, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan and Abu Yoosuf (rahimahullaah) differed from their shaikh Abu Haneefah “in about a third of the Madhhab”56, as the books of masaa’il prove. Similarly is said about Imaam al- Muzani57 and other followers of Shaafi’i and other Imaams; were we to start giving examples, the discussion would become exceedingly, long, and we would digress from what we set out to do in this Introduction, so we shall limit ourselves to two instances:

1) Imaam Muhammad says in his Muwatta’58(p. 158), “As for Abu Haneefah, he did not regard there being a prayer to ask for rain, but we hold that the imaam prays two rak’ahs and then supplicates and holds out his wrapping garment …”

2) We have ‘Isaam ibn Yoosuf al-Balkhi, one of the companions of Imaam Muhammad59 and a servant of Imaam Abu Yoosuf60, who “would give verdicts contrary to Imaam Abu Haneefah because he did not know the latter’s evidence, and other evidence would present itself to him, so he would give verdicts using that.”61 Hence, “he would raise his hands on bowing (in prayer) and on rising from it”62, as is the mutawaatir sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam); the fact that his three Imaams (i.e. Abu Haneefah, Abu Yoosuf and Muhammad) said otherwise did not prevent him from practising this sunnah. This is the approach which every Muslim is obliged to have, as we have already seen from the testimony of the Four Imaams, and others.

To sum up: I sincerely hope that no follower of an Imaam will race to condemn the principles of this book and abandon benefiting from the sunnahs of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) which it contains, with the argument that they are contrary to his Madhhab. I hope that such a person will instead consider what we have given of the exhortations of the Imaams towards the obligation to act on the Sunnah and ignore their sayings contradictory to it. I hope also that he will realise that to condemn the attitude of this book is to condemn whichever Imaam he is following, for we have taken these principles from those Imaams, as we have explained. Therefore, whoever refuses to be guided by them on this path is in great danger, for such refusal necessitates turning away from the Sunnah, the Sunnah to which we have been ordered to refer in cases of difference of opinion and on which we have been commanded to depend.

I ask Allaah to make us among those about whom He says,

“The answer of the believers, when summoned to Allaah and His Messenger, in order that he may judge betweeen them, is no other than this: they say, “We hear and we obey” – it is such as these that will attain Success. It is those who obey Allaah and His Messenger, and fear Allaah, and keep their duty to Him, who will triumph.”63

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Misconceptions Cleared
Misconceptions ClearedThe preceding Introduction was written ten years ago, during which time it has become apparent to us that our words have had a positive effect on Muslim youth in guiding them towards the obligation in matters of their Deen and worship to return to the pure sources of Islaam: the Book and the Sunnah. Among them, there was an increase in the ranks of of those who practised the Sunnah and devoted themselves to it, – Praise be to Allaah – such that they became conspicuous for it. However, I still found among some of them a steadfastness in failing to practise the Sunnah: not due to any doubt about its obligation after reading the Qur’aanic verses and narrations from the Imaams about going back to the Sunnah, but because of some objections and misconceptions which they had heard from some muqallid shaikhs. Therefore, I decided to mention these incorrect notions and refute them, so that perhaps ths would encourage more people to practise the Sunnah and thus be among the Saved Sect, Allaah Willing.

Misconception One

Some of them say, “There is no doubt that it is obligatory to return to the guidance of our Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in the matters of our Deen, especially in the recommended acts of worship such as Prayer, where there is no room for opinion or ijtihaad, due to their immutable nature. However, we hardly hear any of the muqallid shaikhs propounding this; in fact, we find them upholding difference of opinion, which they regard as flexibility for the Ummah. Their proof for this is the hadeeth which they repeatedly quote in such circumstances, when refuting the helpers of the Sunnah, ‘The difference of opinion (ikhtilaaf) among my Ummah is a mercy (rahmah)’. It seems to us that this hadeeth contradicts the principles to which you invite and based on which you have compiled this book and others. So, what do you say about this hadeeth ?”

Answer: The answer is from two angles:

A) Firstly: This hadeeth is not authentic; in fact, it is false and without foundation. ‘Allaamah Subki said, “I have not come across an authentic or weak or fabricated chain of narration for it”, i.e. no chain of narrators exists for this “hadeeth”!

It has also been related with the wordings: “… the difference of opinion among my Companions is a mercy for you” and “My Companions are like the stars, so whichever of them you follow, you will be guided.” Both of these are not authentic: the former is very feeble; the latter is fabricated. (See Appendix 1)

B) Secondly: This hadeeth contradicts the Glorious Qur’aan, for the aayaat forbidding division in the Deen and enjoining unity are too well-known to need reminding. However, there is no harm in giving some of them by way of example: Allaah says,

“… and do not fall into disputes, lest you lose heart and your power depart”1;

“And do not be among those join deities with Allaah, those who split up their Deen and become sects – each party rejoicing with what it has !”2;

“But they will not cease to differ, except those on whom your Lord bestows His Mercy”3.

Therefore, if those on whom your Lord has mercy do not differ, and the people of falsehood differ, how can it make sense that differing is a mercy?!

Hence, it is established that this hadeeth is not authentic, neither in the chain of narration, nor in meaning; therefore, it is clear and obvious that it cannot be used to justify resistance towards acting on the Book and the Sunnah, which is what our Imaams have commanded us anyway.

Misconception Two

Others say, “If differing in the Deen is forbidden, what do you say about the differences among the Companions and among the Imaams after them? Is there any distinction between their differing and that of later generations ?”

Answer: Yes, there is a big difference between these two examples of differing, which manifests itself in two ways: firstly, in cause; secondly, in effect.

A) As for the differing among the Companions, that was unavoidable, natural difference of understanding: they did not differ by choice. Other factors of their time contributed to this, necessitating difference of opinion, but these vanished after their era.4 This type of differing is impossible to totally remove and such people cannot be blamed in the light of the above mentioned aayaat because of the absence of the appropriate conditions, i.e. differing on purpose and insisting on it.

However, as for the differing found among the muqallideen today, there is no overriding excuse for it. To one of them, the proof from the Book and the Sunnah is shown, which happens to support a Madhhab other than his usual one, so he puts the proof aside for no other reason except that it is against his Madhhab. It is as though his Madhhab is the original, or it is the Deen which Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) brought, while other Madhhabs are separate Deens which have been abrogated! Others take the opposite extreme, regarding the Madhhabs – for all their differences – as parallel codes of Law, as some of their later adherents explain5: there is no harm in a Muslim taking what he likes from them and leaving what he likes, because they are all valid codes of Law !

Both these categories of people justify their remaining divided by this false hadeeth, “The differing among my Ummah is a mercy” – so many of them we hear using this as evidence! Some of them give the reason behind this hadeeth and its purpose by saying that it ensures flexibility for the Ummah! Apart from the fact that this “reason” is contrary to the clear Qur’aanic verses and to the meanings of the Imaam’s words mentioned, there is also text fom some Imaams to refute it.

Ibn al-Qaasim said,

“I heard Maalik and Laith saying about the differing of the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), ‘It is not as people say: “There is flexibility in it”; no, it is not like that, but it is a matter of some being mistaken and some being correct’.”6

Ashhab said,

“Maalik was asked about the person who accepted a hadeeth narrated by reliable people in the authority of the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): ‘Do you see any flexibility there?’ He said, ‘No, by Allaah, so that he may be on the truth. Truth can only be one. Two contradictory views, can both be correct?! Truth and right are only one.”7

Imaam Muzani, a companion of Imaam Shaafi’i said,

“The Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) indeed differed, and some of them corrected others. Some scrutinised others’ views and found fault with them. If all their views had been correct, they would not have done so.

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab became angry at the dispute between Ubayy ibn Ka’b and Ibn Mas’ood about prayer in a single garment. Ubayy said, ‘Prayer in one garment is good and fine; Ibn Mas’ood said, ‘That is only if one does not have many clothes.’ So ‘Umar came out in anger, saying, ‘Two men from among the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), who are looked up to and learnt from, disputing? Ubayy has spoken the truth and not cared about Ibn Mas’ood. But if I hear anyone disputing about it after this I will do such-and-such to him’.”8

Imaam Muzani also said,

“There is the one who allows differing and thinks that if two scholars make ijtihaad on a problem and one says, ‘Halaal’, while the other says, ‘Haraam’, then both have arrived at the truth with their ijtihad! It can be said to such a person, ‘Is this view of yours based on the sources or on qiyaas (analogy) ?’ If he says, ‘On the sources’, it can be said, ‘How can it be based on the sources, when the Qur’aan negates differing ?’ And if he says, ‘On analogy’, it can be said, ‘How can the sources negate differing, and it be allowed for you to reason by analogy that differing is allowed?! This is unacceptable to anyone intelligent, let alone to a man of learning.”9

If it is said further: “What you have quoted from Imaam Maalik that truth is only one, not plural, is contradicted by what is found in Al-Madkhal al-Fiqhi by Shaikh Zarqaa’ (1/89), “The Caliphs Abu Ja’far al-Mansoor and later ar- Rasheed proposed to select the Madhhab of Imaam Maalik and his book Al-Muwatta’ as the official code of Law for the ‘Abbaasi empire, but Maalik forbade them from this, saying, “Indeed, the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) differed in the non- fundamental issues and were scattered in various towns, but each of them was correct.

I say: This incident of Imaam Maalik (rahimahullaah) is well- known, but his saying at the end, “but each of them was correct” is one for which I find no basis in any of the narrations or sources I have come across10, by Allaah, except for one narration collected by Abu Nu’aim in Hilyah al- Awliyaa’ (6/332), but with a chain of narrators which includes al-Miqdaam ibn Daawood who is classified among the weak narrators by Dhahabi in ad-Du’afaa’; not only this, but the wording of it is, “… but each of them was correct in his own eyes.” Hence the phrase “in his own eyes” shows that the narration in Madkhal is fabricated; indeed, how could it be otherwise, when it contradicts what has been reported on reliable authority from Imaam Maalik that truth is only one and not plural, as we have mentioned, and this is agreed on by all the Imaams of the Companions and the Successors as well as the four Mujtahid Imaams and others. Ibn ‘Abdul Barr says, “If the conflicting views could both be right, the Salaf would not have corrected each other’s ijtihaad, judgments, and verdicts. Simple reasoning forbids that something and its opposite can both be correct; as the fine saying goes,

To prove two opposites simultaneously is the most hideous absurity.”11

If it is said further, “Given that this narration from Imaam Maalik is false, why did he forbid al-Mansoor from bringing the people together on his book Al-Muwatta’ rather than acceding to the Caliph’s wish ?”

I say: The best that I have found in answer to this is what Haafiz Ibn Katheer has mentioned in his Sharh Ikhtisaar ‘Uloom al-Hadeeth (p.31), that Imaam Maalik said, “Indeed the people have come together on, and know of, things which we are not acquainted with.” This was part of the excellence of his wisdom and impartiality, as Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) says.

Hence, it is proved that all differing is bad, not a mercy! However, one type of differing is reprehensible, such as that of staunch followers of the Madhhabs, while another type is not blameworthy, such as the differing of the Companions and the Imaams who succeeded them – May Allaah raise us in their company, and give us the capability to tread their path.

Therefore, it is clear that the differing of the Companions was not like that of the muqallideen. Briefly: the Companions only differed when it was inevitable, but they used to hate disputes, and would avoid them whenever possible; as for the muqallideen, even though it is possible in a great many cases to avoid differing, they do not agree nor strive towards unity; in fact, they uphold differing. Hence there is an enormous gulf between these two types of people in their difference of opinion.

This was from the point of view of cause.

B) The difference in effect is more obvious.

The Companions (radi Allaahu ‘anhum), despite their well- known differing in non-fundamental issues, were extremely careful to preserve outward unity, staying well-away from anything which would divide them and split their ranks. For example, there were among them those who approved of saying the basmalah loudly (in prayer) and those who did not; there were those who held that raising the hands (in prayer) was recommended and those who did not; there were those who held that touching a woman nullified ablution, and those who did not; – but despite all that, they would all pray together behind one imaam, and none of them would disdain from praying behind an imaam due to difference of opinion.

As for the muqallideen, their differing is totally opposite, for it has caused Muslims to be divided inthe mightiest pillar of faith after the two testifications of faith: none other than the Salaah (Prayer). They refuse to pray together behind one imaam, arguing that the imaam’s prayer is invalid, or at least detestable, for someone of a different Madhhab. This we have heard and seen, as others beside us have seen12; how can it not be, when nowadays some famous books of the Madhhabs rule such cases of invalidity or detestability. The result of this has been that you find four Mihraabs (alcoves) in some large congregational mosques, in which four imaams successively lead the Prayer, and you find people waiting for their imaam while another imaam is already standing in Prayer!!!

In fact, to some muqallideen, the difference between the Madhhabs has reached a worse state than that, such as a ban in marriage between Hanafees and Shaafi’is; one well known Hanafi scholar, later nicknamed Mufti ath-Thaqalayn (The Mufti for Humans and Jinn), issued a fatwaa allowing a Hanafi man to marry a Shaafi’i woman, because “her position is like that of the People of the Book”13 ! This implies – and implied meanings are acceptable to them – that the reverse case is not allowed, i.e. a Hanafi woman marrying a Shaafi’i man, just as a Muslim woman cannot marry a Jew or Christian?!!

These two examples, out of many, are enough to illustrate to anyone intelligent the evil effects of the differing of the later generations and their insistence upon it, unlike the differing of the earlier generations (the Salaf), which did not have any adverse effect on the Ummah. Because of this, the latter are exempt from the verses prohibiting division in the Deen, unlike the later generations. May Allaah guide us all to the Straight Path.

Further, how we wish that the harm caused by such differing be limited to among themselves and not extend to the other peoples being given da’wah, for then it would not be that bad, but it is so sad when they allow it to reach the non- believers in many areas around the world, and their differing obstructs the entry of people in large numbers into the Deen of Allaah! The book Zalaam min al-Gharb by Muhammad al- Ghazaali (p. 200) records the following incident,

“It so happened during a conference held at the University of Princeton in America that one of the speakers raised a question, one which is a favourite of the Orientalists and the attackers of Islaam: ‘Which teachings do the Muslims advance to the world in order to specify the Islaam towards which they are inviting ? Is it Islamic teachings as understood by the Sunnis? Or is it as understood by the Imaami or Zaidi Shee’ahs? Moreover, all of these are divided further amongst themselves, and further, some of them believe in limited progression in thought, while others believe obstinately in fixed ideas.’

The result was that the inviters to Islaam left those being invited in confusion, for they were themselves utterly confused.”14

In the Preface to Hadiyyah as-Sultaan ilaa Muslimee Bilaad Jaabaan by ‘Allaamah Sultaan al-Ma’soomi (rahimahullaah), the author says,

A query was posed to me by the Muslims from Japan, from the cities of Tokyo and Osaka in the far east, “What is the actual Deen of Islaam? What is a Madhhab? Is it necessary for one ennobled by the Deen of Islaam to adhere to one of the four Madhhabs? That is, should he be Maaliki, Hanafi, Shaafi’i or Hanbali, or is it not necessary?”

This was because a major differing, a filthy dispute, had occured here, when a number of groups of Japanese intellectuals wanted to enter into the Deen of Islaam, and be ennobled by the nobility of Eeman. When they proposed this to some Muslims present in Tokyo, some people from India said, “It is best that they choose the Madhhab of Abu Haneefah, for he is the Lamp of the Ummah”; some people from Indonesia (Java) said, “No, they should be Shaafi’i!” So when the Japanese heard these statements, they were extremely perplexed and were thrown off their original purpose. Hence the issue of the Madhhabs became a barrier in the path of their accepting Islaam!!

Misconception Three

Others have the idea that what we invite to, of following the Sunnah and not accepting the views of the Imaams contrary to it, means to completely abandon following their views and benefiting from their opinions and ijtihaad.

Answer: This idea is as far as can be from the truth – it is false and obviously flawed, as is clearly evident from our previous discussion, all of which suggests otherwise. All that we are calling to is to stop treating the Madhhab as a Deen, placing it in the position of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, such that it is referred to in the case of dispute or when extracting a new judgment for unexpected cirumstances, as the so-called jurists of this age do when setting new rules for personal matters, marriage, divorce, etc, instead of referring to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah to distinguish the right from the wrong, the truth from falsehood – all of this on the basis of their “Differing is a mercy” and their idea of pursuing every concession, ease and convenience! How fine was the saying of Sulaiman at-Taymi (rahimahullaah):

Were you to accept the concessions of every scholar, In you would gather every evil.

Related by Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilm (2/91- 91), who said after it, “There is ijmaa’ (consensus of opinion) on this: I know of no contrary view.”

All this pursuing of concessions for the sake of it is what we reject, and it agrees with ijmaa’, as you see.

As for referring to the Imaams’ views, benefiting from them, and being helped by them in understanding the truth where they have differed and there is no text in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, or when there is need for clarification, we do not reject it. In fact, we enjoin it and stress upon it, for there is much benefit expected in this for whoever treads the path of being guided by the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. ‘Allaamah Ibn ‘Abdul Barr (rahimahullaah) says (2/182),

“Hence, my brother, you must preserve the fundamentals and pay attention to them. You should know that he who takes care over preserving the sunnahs and the commandments stated in the Qur’aan, considers the views of the jurists to assist him in his ijtihaad, open up different angles of approach and explain sunnahs which carry different possible meanings, does not blindly follow the opinion of anyone of them the way the Sunnah should be followed without analysis, nor ignores what the scholars themselves achieved in preserving and reflecting on the sunnahs, but follows them in discussion, understanding and analysis, is grateful to them for their efforts through which they have benefited him and alerted him about various points, praises them for their correct conclusions, as in the majority of cases, but does not clear them of errors just as they did not clear themselves: such is the pursuer of knowledge who is adhering to the way of the pious predecessors; such is the really fortunate and truly guided; such is the follower of the Sunnah of his Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and the guidance of the Companions (radi Allaahu ‘anhum).

But he who refrains from analysis, forsakes the method we have mentioned, disputes the sunnahs with his opinion and desires to accommadate them only where his own view allows: such a one is straying and leading others astray. Further, he who is ignorant of all we have mentioned, and plunges carelessly into giving verdicts without knowledge: such a one is even more blind, and on a path more astray.”

Misconception Four

There exists another common misconception among muqallideen which bars them from practising the Sunnah which it is apparent to them that their Madhhab is different to it in that issue: they think that practising that sunnah entails faulting the founder of the Madhhab. To them, finding fault means insulting the Imaam; if it is not allowed to insult any individual Muslim, how can they insult one of their Imaams ?

Answer: This reasoning is totally fallacious, and borne of not understanding the Sunnah; otherwise, how can an intelligent Muslim argue in such a way?!

The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself said, When the one making a judgment strives his outmost and arrives at the correct result, he has two rewards; but if he judges, striving his utmost and passes the wrong judgment, he has one reward.15 This hadeeth refutes the above argument and explains lucidly and without any obscurity that if someone says, “So-and-so was wrong”, its meaning under the Sharee’ah is “So-and-so has one reward.” So if he is rewarded in the eyes of the one finding fault, how can you accuse the latter of insulting him?! There is doubt that this type of accusation is baseless and anyone who makes it must retract it: otherwise it is he who is insulting Muslims, not just ordinary individuals among them, but their great Imaams among the Companions, Successors the subsequent Mujtahid Imaams and others. This is because we know for sure that these illustrious personalities used to fault and refute each other16; is it reasonable to say, “They used to insult each other”? No! In fact, it is authentically-reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself faulted Abu Bakr (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) in his interpretation of a man’s dream, saying to him, “You were right in some of it and wrong in some of it”17– so did he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) insult Abu Bakr by these words?!

One of the astonishing effects this misconception has on its holders is that it prevents them from following the Sunnah when it is different to their Madhhab, since to them practising it means insulting the Imaam, whereas following him, even when contrary to the Sunnah, means respecting and loving him! Hence they insist on following his opinion to escape from this supposed disrespect.

These people have forgotten – I am not saying: … pretended to forget – that because of this notion, they have landed in something far worse than that from which they were fleeing. It should be said to them, “If to follow someone means that you are respecting him, and to oppose him means that you are insulting him, then how do you allow yourselves to oppose the example of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and not follow it, preferring to follow the Imaam of the Madhhab in a path different to the Sunnah, when the Imaam is not infallible and insulting him is not Kufr?! If you interpret opposing the Imaam as insulting him, then opposing the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is more obviously insulting him; in fact, it is open Kufr, from which we seek refuge with Allaah!” If this is said to them, they cannot answer to it, by Allaah, except one retort which we hear time and time again from some of them: “We have left this sunnah trusting in the Imaam of the Madhhab, and he was more learned about the Sunnah than us.”

Our answer to this is from many angles, which have already been discussed at length in this Introduction. This is why I shall briefly limit myself to one approach, a decisive reply by the permission of Allaah. I say:

“The Imaam of your Madhhab is not the only one who was more learned about the Sunnah than you: in fact, there are dozens, nay hundreds, of Imaams who too were more knowledgeable about the Sunnah than you. Therefore, if an authentic sunnah happens to differ from your Madhhab, and it was taken by one of these other Imaams, it is definitely essential that you accept this sunnah in this circumstance. This is because your above- mentioned argument is of no use here, for the one opposing you will reply, ‘We have accepted this Sunnah trusting in our Imaam, who accepted it’ – in this instance, to follow the latter Imaam is preferable to following the Imaam who has differed from the Sunnah.”

This is clear and not confusing to anyone, Allaah Willing.

Because of all of the above, I am able to say:

Since this book of ours has collected the authentic sunnahs reported from the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) about the description of his Prayer, there is no excuse for anyone to not act on it, for there is nothing in it which the scholars have unanimously rejected, as they would never do. In fact, in every instance several of them have adopted the authentic sunnah; any one of them who did not do so is excused and rewarded once, because the text was not conveyed to him at all, or it was conveyed but in such a way that to him it did not constitute proof, or due to other reasons which are well-known among the scholars. However, those after him in front of whom the text is firmly established have no excuse for following his opinion; rather, it is obligatory to follow the infallible text.

This message has been the purpose of this Introduction. Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, says,

“O you who believe! Give your response to Allaah and His Messenger when he calls you to that which will give you life, and know that Allaah comes in between a man and his heart, and it is He to whom you shall all be gathered.”18

Allaah says the Truth; He shows the Way; and He is the Best to Protect and the Best to Help. May Allaah send prayers and peace on Muhammad, and on his family and his Companions. Praise be to Allaah, Lord of the Worlds.

Muhammad Naasirud-Deen al-Albaani

Damascus 28/10/1389 AH

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)The Prophet’s Prayer Described

Facing The Ka’bah

When the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) stood for prayer, he would face the Ka’bah in both obligatory and voluntary prayers1, and he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ordered that, saying to the “one who prayed badly”2 : When you stand for prayer, perform ablution prefectly, then face the qiblah and say takbeer.3

“During a journey, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would pray voluntary prayers and witr on his mount, wherever it faced carrying him [east or west].”4

The saying of Allaah, the Exalted, “Wherever you turn, there is the Face of Allaah” (Baqarah, 2:115) applies to this.5

“[Sometimes] when he intended to pray non-obligatory prayers on his she-camel, he would make it face the qiblah, say takbeer, and pray towards wherever his mount turned its face.”6

“He would make rukoo’ and sajdah on his mount by lowering his head, making the sajdah lower than the rukoo’.”7

“When he intended to pray obligatory prayers, he would dismount and face the qiblah.”8

In prayer during severe fear, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) set the example for his ummah to pray “on foot, standing on their feet, or mounted; facing the qiblah or not facing it”9, and he also said, When they (the armies) meet, then it (i.e. the prayer) is takbeer and indication with the head.10

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) also used to say: What is between the east and the west is qiblah.11

Jaabir (radiallaahu ‘anhu) said:

“Once, when we were with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) on an expedition, the sky was cloudy, so we tried to find the Qibla but we differed, so each one of us prayed in a different direction, and each of us drew marks in front of him in order to mark our positions. In the morning, we looked at it and found that we had not prayed towards the Qiblah. So we mentioned this to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) [but he did not order us to repeat (the prayer)] and he said: Your prayer was sufficient.12

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to pray towards Bait al-Muqaddas [with the Ka’bah in front of him] before the following verse was revealed: “We see the turning of your faces to the heavens; now shall we turn you to a Qiblah that shall please you: turn then your faces in the direction of the Sacred Mosque” (Baqarah 2:144). When it was revealed he faced the Ka’bah. There were people at Qubaa’ praying Fajr when someone came to them and said, ‘Verily the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has had some of the Qur’aan revealed to him last night and he has been ordered to face the Ka’bah, [verily] so face it’. Their faces were towards Shaam, so they turned round [and their Imaam turned round to face the qiblah along with them].”13

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Standing in Prayer 

Standing in Prayer

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to stand in prayer for both obligatory and voluntary prayers, carrying out the command of the Exalted:

And stand before Allaah devoutly.” (Baqarah, 2:238)

As for during a journey, he would pray voluntary prayers on his riding beast.

He set the example for his ummah to pray during severe fear on foot or while mounted, as has been mentioned, and that is the purpose of the saying of Allaah:

“Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers, especially the Middle Prayer14, and stand before Allaah devoutly. If you fear (an enemy) then pray on foot, or while riding. But when you are in security, celebrate Allaah’s praises in the manner He has taught you, which you did not know before.” (Baqarah, 2:238-9)

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed sitting during the illness of which he died.”15 He also prayed sitting on another occasion before that, when he was injured, and the people behind him prayed standing; so he indicated to them to sit, so they sat (and prayed). When he finished, he said, You were going to do as the Persians and the Romans do: stand for their kings who sit. So do not do so, for the Imaam is there to be followed: when he makes rukoo’, make rukoo’, when he rises, rise; and when he prays sitting, pray sitting [all of you].16

The Prayer of a Sick Person in a Sitting Position

‘Imran ibn Husain (radiallaahu ‘anhu) said, “I was suffering from haemorrhoids (piles), so I asked the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and he said, Pray standing; if you are not able, then sitting down; if you are not able to do so, then pray lying down.17

‘Imraan ibn Husain also said, “I asked him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) about the prayer of a man while sitting, so he said: He who prays standing, that is better; he who prays sitting, his reward is half that of the former. He who prays lying down (and in another narration: reclining), has half the reward of the one who sits.18This applies to the sick person, for Anas (radiallaahu ‘anhu) said, “The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came out to the people while they were praying sitting due to illness, so he said: Verily, the prayer of one who sits is (worth) half of the prayer of the one who stands.19

Once “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) visited a sick person and saw him praying (leaning) on a pillow, so he took it and cast it aside. So the man took a stick to pray (leaning) on it, but he took it and cast it aside and said: Pray on the ground if you can, but otherwise make movements with your head, making your sujood lower than your rukoo.20

Prayer on a Ship

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was asked about prayer on a ship, so he said, Pray on it standing, unless you are afraid of drowning.21

When he grew old he took a support at his place of prayer to lean on22.

 

Sitting and Standing in the Night Prayer (Tahajjud)

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), used to pray long through the night standing, and long through the night sitting, and if he recited standing, he would bow standing, and if he recited sitting, he would bow sitting.”23

Sometimes, “He would pray sitting, so he would recite sitting until about thirty or forty verses of his recitation wre left; he would then stand up to recite these standing and then bow and prostrate, and he would do likewise in the second raka’ah.”24

In fact, “he prayed as-subhah25 sitting down towards the end of his life when he had grown old, and that was a year before his death.”26

Also “he would sit cross-legged.”27

Prayer Wearing Shoes and the command to do so

“He used to stand (in prayer) bare-footed sometimes and wearing shoes sometimes.”28

He allowed this for his ummah, saying: When one of you prays, he should wear his shoes or take them off and put them between his feet, and not harm others with them.29

He encouraged prayer wearing them sometimes, saying: Be different from the Jews, for they do not pray in their shoes nor in their khuffs (leather socks).30

Occasionally he would remove them from his feet while in prayer and then continue his prayer, as Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri has said:

“The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed with us one day. Whilst he was engaged in the prayer he took off his shoes and placed them on his left. When the people saw this, they took off their shoes. When he finished his prayer he said, Why did you take your shoes off? They said, ‘We saw you taking your shoes off, so we took our shoes off.’ He said, Verily Jibreel came to me and informed me that there was dirt – or he said: something harmful – (in another narration: filth)on my shoes, so I took them off. Therefore, when one of you goes to the mosque, he should look at his shoes: if he sees in them dirt – or he said: something harmful – (in another narration: filth) he should wipe them and pray in them.31

“When he removed them, he would place them on his left”32 and he would also say: When one of you prays, he should not place his shoes on his right nor on his left, where they will be on someone else’s right, except if there is no one on his left, but he should place them between his feet.33

Prayer on the Pulpit (Minbar)

“Once he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed on the pulpit (in another narration: ‘… which had three steps’)34. Hence [he stood on it and said takbeer and the people behind him said takbeer while he was on the pulpit,] [then he made rukoo’ on the pulpit,] then he rose and descended backwards to make sajdah at the foot of the pulpit. Then he returned, [and did on it as he had done in the first rak’ah], until he completed his prayer. He then turned to the people and said: O people! I have done this so that you may follow me and learn my prayer.35

 

The Sutrah36, and the Obligation to have one

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to stand near to the sutrah, so that there was (a distance of) three cubits between him and the wall”37 and “between the place of his prostration and the wall, (there was) enough space for a sheep to pass.”38

He used to say: “Do not pray except towards a sutrah, and do not let anyone pass in front of you, but if someone continues (to try to pass) then fight him, for he has a companion (i.e. a shaytaan) with him.”39

He would also say: “When one of you prays towards a sutrah, he should get close to it so that Shaytaan cannot break his prayer.”40

Sometimes “he would seek to pray at the pillar which was in his mosque.”41

“When he prayed [in an open space where there was nothing to use as sutrah] he would plant a spear in the ground in front of him and pray towards it with the people behind him”42; Sometimes “he would to set his mount sideways and pray towards it”43 but this is not the same as prayer in the resting-place of camels44, which “he forbade”45, and sometimes “he would take his saddle; set it lengthways and pray towards its end.”46

He would say: When one of you places in front of him something such as the stick on the end of a saddle, he should pray and not mind anyone who passes beyond it.47

Once “he prayed towards a tree”48 and sometimes “he would pray towards the bed on which ‘Aa’ishah (radi Allaahu anhaa) was lying [under her sheet].”49

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), would not let anything pass between him and his sutrah, hence once “he was praying, when a sheep came running in front of him, so he raced it until he pressed his belly against the wall [and it passed behind him].”50

Also, once “while praying an obligatory prayer, he clenched his fist (during it), so when he had finished, the people said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, did something happen during the prayer?’ He said: No, except that the devil wanted to pass in front of me, so I strangled him until I could feel the coldness of his tongue on my hand By Allaah! Had my brother Sulaimaan not beaten me to it51, I would have tied him (the devil) to one of the pillars of the mosque so that the children of Madinah could walk round him. [So whoever can prevent something intervening between him and the qiblah, he must do so].”52

He also used to say:

When one of you prays towards something which is a sutrah between him and the people and someone intends to cross in front of him, then he should push him in the throat [and repel, as much as he can], (in one narration: he should stop him, twice) but if he refuses (to not pass) then he should fight him, for verily he is a devil.53

He also used to say: If the person who passed in front of someone praying knew (the sin) on him, it would be better for him to wait forty than to pass in front. (Abu an-Nadr said, “I do not remember exactly whether he said forty days, months or years.”).54

 

What Breaks the Prayer

He used to say: A man’s prayer is cut off when there is nothing such as the end of a saddle in front of him, by: a [menstruating]55 woman, a donkey or a black dog. Abu Dharr said, ‘I said: “O Messenger of Allaah, why the black dog rather than the red one?” He said, The black dog is a shaytaan.56

Prohibition of Prayer Facing the Grave

He used to forbid prayer facing the grave, saying: Do not pray towards the graves, and do not sit on them.57

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Intention

Intention58

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to say: All actions are by intention, and every man shall have what he intended.59

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Takbeer

Takbeer

Then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would commence the prayer by saying:

Allaah is the Greatest60

He ordered “the man who prayed badly” to do likewise as has been mentioned, and he said to him: Verily, the prayer of a person is not complete until he has made an ablution which has included the necessary parts of the body and has then said: ‘Allaahu Akbar’.61

He would also used to say: The key to the prayer is purification, it is entered by takbeer and exited by tasleem.62

Also, “he used to raise his voice for the takbeer such that those behind him could hear.”63 But, “when he fell ill Abu Bakr used to raise his voice to convey the takbeer of the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to the people.”64

He would also say: When the Imaam says: Allaahu Akbar, then say: Allaahu Akbar.65

Raising the Hands

He would raise his hands sometimes with the takbeer,66 sometimes after the takbeer,67 and sometimes before it.68

“He would raise them with fingers apart [not spaced out, nor together]”,69 and “he would put them level with his shoulders”70, although occasionally, “he would raise them until they were level with [the tops of] his ears.”71

To Place the Right Arm on the Left Arm, and the command for it

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to place his right arm on his left arm”72, and he used to say: We, the company of prophets, have been commanded to hasten the breaking of the fast, to delay the meal before the fast, and to place our right arms on our left arms during prayer.73

Also “he passed by a man who was praying and had placed his left arm on his right, so he pulled them apart and placed the right on the left.”74

 

To Place the Hands on the Chest

“He used to place the right arm on the back of his left palm, wrist and forearm”75, “and he commanded his companions to do likewise”76, and (sometimes) “he would grasp his left arm with his right.”77

“He used to place them on his chest.”78

Also “he used to forbid putting one’s hand on the waist during prayer [and he put his hand on his waist (to demonstrate)]”79. And this is the “silb” which he used to forbid.80

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)To Look at the Place of Prostration, and Humility

To Look at the Place of Prostration, and Humility

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to incline his head during prayer and fix his sight towards the ground”81– “while he was in the Ka’bah, his sight did not leave the place of his prostration until he came out from it”82; and he said, It is not fitting that there should be anything in the House which disturbs the person praying.83

“He used to forbid looking up at the sky”84, and he emphasised this prohibition so much that he said: People must refrain from looking up at the sky in prayer, or their sight will not return to them (and in one narration: or their sight will be plucked away).85 In another hadeeth: So when you pray, do not look here and there, for Allaah sets His Face for the face of his slave in his prayer as long as he does not look away86, and he also said about looking here and there, “it is a snatching away which the devil steals from the slave during prayer.”87

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) also said: Allaah does not cease to turn to a slave in his prayer as long as he is not looking around; when he turns his face away, Allaah turns away from him88; he “forbade three things: pecking like a hen, squatting (iq’aa’), like a dog and looking around like a fox”89; he also used to say, Pray a farewell prayer as if you see Him, but if you do not see Him, surely He sees you90; and, Any person who, when an obligatory prayer is due, excels in its ablution, humility and bowings, will have it as a remission for his previous minor sins as long as he does not commit a major sin, and this (opportunity) is for all times.91

Once he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), prayed in a khameesah92 and (during the prayer) he looked at its marks. So when he finished, he said: Take this khameesah of mine to Abu Jahm and bring me his anbijaaniyyah93, for it has diverted my attention from the prayer (in one narration: for I have looked at its marks during the prayer and it almost put me to trial).94 Also “‘Aaishah had a cloth with pictures spread towards a sahwah95, towards which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed and then said: Take it away from me [for its pictures did not cease to thwart me in my prayer].96

He would also say: Prayer is not valid when the food has been served, nor when it is time to relieve oneself of the two filths.97

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Opening Supplications (Du’aa’s)

Opening Supplications (Du’aa’s)

Next, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would commence his recitation with many kinds of supplications in which he would praise Allaah the Exalted, and glorify and extol Him. He in fact ordered “the man who prayed badly” to do so, saying to him: No person’s prayer is complete unless he says takbeer, praises Allaah the Mighty and Sublime and extols Him, recites of the Qur’aan what is easy for him …98

He would say any one of the following supplications: –

O Allaah! Separate me (far) from my sins as you have separated (far) the East and West. O Allaah! Cleanse me of my sins as white cloth is cleansed from dirt. O Allaah! Wash me of my sins with water, ice and snow.
He used to say this in obligatory prayers.99

I have set my face towards the Originator of the heavens and the earth sincerely [in Islam] and I am not among the Mushrikeen. Indeed my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds: no partner has He. With this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims (those who submit to Him).100 O Allaah! You are the King, none has the right to br worshipped but You, [You are the Most Perfect & all Praise is for You] You are my Lord and I am Your slave101. I have wronged myself, and have acknowledged my sins, so forgive all my sins, for no-one forgives sins except You. Guide me to the best of characters, to which no- one can guide except You, and save me from the worst of characters, from which no-one can save except You. I am here and happy to serve you102. All good is in your Hands, and evil is not from You.103 [The guided one is he who is guided by you.] I exist by your will and belong to You. [There is no escape or shelter from You except to You.] You are blessed and exalted. I seek Your forgiveness and repent to You.
He used to say this in obligatory and voluntary prayers104.

  1. Similar to the above, without

You are my Lord and I am Your slave to the end, with the following addition:
O Allaah! You are the King, there is no (true) deity except You, glorified be You and praised.105

  1. Similar to no. 2 until

and I am the first of the Muslims, adding:
O Allaah, guide me to the best of characters and the best of actions, no one to which can guide except You, and save me from the evil characters and actions, from which no one except You can save (others) except You106.

You are Glorified107, O Allaah, and Praised108; Your Name is Blessed109; Your Majesty110 is Exalted, and none has the right to worshipped but You.111 He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) also said, Indeed, the words most loved by Allaah are when His slave says: You are glorified, O Allaah112

  1. Similar to the above, adding in prayer at night:

There is no true god except Allaah, three times, and
Allaah is the Greatest, Very Great, three times.

Allaah is the Greatest, very great. Praise be to Allaah, again and again. Glorified is Allaah morning and evening – one of the Companions commenced with this, to which the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Wonderful for it (the supplication) is that the doors of the heavens were opened for it.113

Praise be to Allaah, many, pure, blessed praises. Another man commenced with this, to which he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: I saw twelve angels competing as to which of them would take it up.114

O Allaah, to You belongs all Praise. You are the Light115 of the heavens and the earth and all those in them; to You belongs all Praise. You are the Maintainer116 of the heavens and the earth and all those in them; [to You belongs all Praise. You are the King of the heavens and the earth and all those in them] to You belongs all Praise. You are the Haqq117; Your promise is haqq; Your saying is haqq; meeting You is haqq; Paradise is haqq; the Fire is haqq; the Hour is haqq; the Prophets are haqq; Muhammad is haqq. O Allaah! to You I have submitted; in You I have placed my trust; in You I have believed; to You I have turned; for Your sake I have fought; to You I have referred for judgement; [You are our Lord and to You is the end of all journeys: so forgive me my earlier and later sins, what I have concealed and what I have showed] [and whatever else You know about more than I.] You are the Bringer- Forward and You are the Delayer; [You are my deity;] and none has the right to worshipped but You.118 [and there is no might nor power except with You].

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to say this in prayer at night, as he did the following supplications:119

O Allaah, Lord of Jibraa’eel, Meekaa’eel and Israafeel, Creator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of all that is hidden and open! It is You that will judge between Your servants in those matters about which they used to differ. Guide me by Your Grace to the Truth concerning that about which they differed, for indeed You guide whomsoever You wish to a path that is straight.120

  1. He would say takbeer, tahmeed, tasbeeh, tahleel and istighfaar ten times each, and then say,

O Allaah! forgive me and guide me and give me sustenance and [overlook my sins] ten times, and then say:
O Allaah! I seek refuge with You from the distress of the Day of Account ten times.121

“Allaah is the Greatest [three times], Possessor of Kingdom, Power, Magnificence and Might.”122

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Recitation

Recitation

Next, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would seek refuge with Allaah the Exalted, saying:
I seek refuge with Allaah from the Evil One, the Rejected, from his madness123, his arrogance, and his poetry124. Sometimes he would add to this, saying:
I seek refuge with Allaah, the all-Hearing, the all-Knowing, from the Evil One125

Then he would recite,
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy, but not loudly126.

 

Recitation of one Verse at a Time

Next, he would recite Soorah al-Faatihah and divide his recitation, reciting one verse at a time. He would say:
[Here he would pause, and then say:]
[Then he would pause, and then say:]
[Then he would pause, and then say:]
… and so on, until the end of the soorah. The rest of his recitation was also like this: stopping at the end of the verse and not joining it with the one after.127

Sometimes, he would recite,
(King of the Day of Judgment) instead of
(Master of the Day of Judgment).128

The Necessity of al-Faatihah, and its Excellence

He would vehemently emphasise the importance of this soorah, saying: “There is no prayer for the one who did not recite [in it] the opening chapter [at least]129, and in another saying: That prayer is not sufficient in which a man does not recite the Opening of the Book130. He also said: He who performs a prayer in which he does not recite the Opening of the Book, then it (i.e. the prayer) is deficient, it is deficient, it is deficient, incomplete.131. He also said:

Allaah the Blessed and Exalted has said:I have divided the prayer132 between Myself and My servant, into two halves: half of it is for Me and half is for My servant, and My servant shall have what he has asked for.” Then the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Recite! The servant says “Praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds”; Allaah the Exalted says My servant has praised Me. The servant says, “The Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy”; Allaah says, “My servant has extolled Me”. The servant says “Master of the Day of Judgment”; Allaah the Exalted says, “My servant has glorified Me”. The servant says, “It is You (alone) we worship and it is You (alone) we ask for help”; [He says:], “This is between Me and My servant, and My servant shall have what he has asked for”. The servant says, “Guide us to the Straight Path, the Path of those whom You have favoured, not of those who receive Your anger, nor of those who go astray”. [He says:], “All these are for My servant, and My servant shall have what he has asked for.133

He also used to say: Allaah did not reveal in the Torah or the Gospel anything like the Mother of the Qur’aan. It is the Seven Oft-Repeated134[and the Grand Recitation which have been bestowed upon me].135

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) commanded “the one who prayed badly” to recite it in his prayer136, but said to one who could not remember it, Say:
(I declare Allaah free from all defects; all Praise be to Allaah; none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah; Allaah is the Greatest; there is no might or power except by Allaah)137.

He also said to “the one who prayed badly”: If you know some of the Qur’aan, then recite it, otherwise praise Allaah, declare His Greatness and declare that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah;138

 

The Abrogation of Recitation behind the Imaam in the Loud Prayers

He had given permission for those being led by the Imaam to recite Soorah al-Faatihah in the loud prayers, when once:

“he was praying Fajr and the recitation became difficult for him. When he finished, he said: Perhaps you recite behind your imaam. We said: “Yes, quickly139, O Messenger of Allaah.” He said: Do not do so, except for [each of you reciting] the opening chapter of the Book, for the prayer is not valid of the one who does not recite it.140

Later, he forbade them from reciting in the loud prayers at all, when:

“He finished a prayer in which he was reciting loudly (in one narration: it was the dawn prayer) and said: Were any of you reciting with me just now?! A man said: “Yes, I was, O Messenger of Allaah”. He said: I say, why am I contended with? [Abu Hurairah said:] So the people stopped reciting with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) when he was reciting loudly after hearing that from him [but they recited to themselves quietly when the imaam was not reciting loudly].”141

He also made silence during the imaam’s recitation part of the completeness of following the imaam, saying: The imaam is there to be followed, so when he says takbeer, say takbeer, and when he recites, be silent142, just as he made listening to the imaam’s recitation enough to not have to recite behind him, saying: He who has an imaam, then the recitation of the imaam is recitation for him143 – this applying in the loud prayers.

The Obligation to Recite in the Quiet Prayers

As for the quiet prayers, he urged them to recite during them; Jaabir said, “We used to recite behind the imaam in Zuhr and ‘Asr: soorah al-Faatihah and another soorah in the first two rak’ahs, and soorah al-Fatihah in the last two.”144

However, he dissuaded them from confusing him with their recitation, when:

“he prayed Zuhr with his Companions and said (afterwards): Which of you recited “Glorify the name of your Lord the Most High” (soorah al-A’laa, 87)? Someone said: It was I [but I was only intending nothing but good by doing so]. So he said: I knew that someone was contending with me by it.145 In another hadeeth: “They used to recite behind the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) [loudly], so he said: You have mixed up my (recitation of the) Qur’aan.146

He also said: Truly, the person praying is privately consulting his Lord, so he should be careful about what he consults him with, and you should not recite the Qur’aan loudly over each other.147

He also used to say: Whoever recited a harf (letter) from the Book of Allaah, it will count for him as one good deed, and a good deed is worth ten times over. I do not mean that “alif laam meem” is a harf, but “alif” is a harf, “laam” is a harf, and “meem” is a harf.148

The aameen, and the Imaam’s saying it Loudly

When he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) finished reciting al- Faatihah, he would say:
(“aameen”) loudly, prolonging his voice.149

He also used to order the congregation to say aameen: When the imaam says,
“Not of those who receive (Your) anger, nor of those who go astray”, then say “aameen” [for the angels say “aameen” and the imaam says aameen”] (in another narration: when the imaam says “aameen” say “aameen”), so he whose aameen coincides with the aameen of the angels (in another narration: when one of you says “aameen” in prayer and the angels in the sky say “aameen”, and they coincide), his past sins are forgiven.150 In another hadeeth: … then say aameen; Allaah will answer you.151

He also used to say: The Jews do not envy you over anything as much as they envy you over the salutation and aameen [behind the imaam].152

The Recitation after al-Faatihah

Next, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would recite another soorah after al-Faatihah, making it long sometimes, and on other occasions making it short because of travel, cough, illness or the crying of infants.

Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made it [i.e. the recitation] short one day in the dawn prayer.” (In another hadeeth: he prayed the morning prayer and recited the two shortest soorahs in the Qur’aan.) So it was said: “O Messenger of Allaah, why did you make it short?” He said: I heard the crying of a child, and I supposed that his mother was praying with us, so I wanted to free his mother for him.153

He also used to say: I enter into prayer intending to lengthen it, but I hear the crying of a child so I shorten my prayer because I know how deeply his mother feels about his crying.154

He used to start from the beginnning of a soorah, completing it most of the time.155

He used to say: Give every soorah its share of rukoo’ and sujood.156 In another narration: Every soorah should have a rak’ah.157

Sometimes he would divide the soorah into two rak’ahs158 and sometimes he would repeat the whole soorah in the second rak’ah159.

Sometimes he would combine two or more soorahs in one rak’ah.160

One of the Ansaar used to lead them in the mosque of Qubaa’, and every time he recited a soorah161 for them, he would begin with “Say: He is Allaah, the One and Only ” (soorah al- Ikhlaas, 112) until its end, and then recite another soorah with it, and he would do this in every rak’ah. Because of this, his people spoke to him, saying: “You begin with this soorah, and then you do not regard it as enough until you recite another one: you should either recite it (only) or leave it and recite another one. He said: “I will not leave it: if you do not mind me leading you with it, I shall carry on, but if you do not like it, I shall leave you.” They knew that he was one of their best, and they did not like to be led by anyone else, so when the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to them, they told him the story. He said: O so- and-so, what stops you from doing what your people ask you to? What makes you recite this soorah in every rak’ah? He said: “I love this soorah.” He said: Your love for it will enter you into the Garden.162

Combining Similar Soorahs and others in One Rak’ah

He used to combine the pairs163 of the mufassal164 soorahs, so he used to recite one of the following pairs of soorahs in one rak’ah165:

  • ar-Rahmaan (55:78)166 & an-Najm (53:62);
  • al-Qamar (54:55) & al-Haaqqah (69:52);
  • at-Toor (52:49) & Dhaariyaat (51:60);
  • al-Waaqi’ah (56:96) & al-Qalam (68:52);
  • al-Ma’aarij (70:44) & an-Naazi’aat (79:46);
  • al-Mutaffifeen (83:36) & ‘Abasa (80:42);
  • al-Muddaththir (74:56 ) & al-Muzzammil (73:20);
  • ad-Dahr (76:31) & al-Qiyaamah (75:40);
  • an-Naba (78:40) & al-Mursalaat (77:50);
  • ad-Dukhaan (44:59) & at-Takweer (81:29).

Sometimes he would combine soorahs from the seven tiwaal (long soorahs), such as al-Baqarah, an-Nisaa’ and aal-Imraan in one rak’ah during night prayer (below). He used to say: The most excellent prayer is one with long standing.167

When he recited, “Does He not have the power to give life to the dead?” (Qiyaamah 75:40), he would say,
(Glory be to You, of course!)

and when he recited,”Glorify the name of your Lord Most High” (A’laa 87:1), he would say,
(Glorified be my Lord Most High).168

The Permissibility of Reciting al-Faatihah only

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal used to pray ‘Ishaa’ [the last] with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and then return and lead his people in prayer. One night when he returned and prayed with them, a young man [called Sulaim, of the Banu Salamah] from his people prayed, but when it became too long for him, he [went away and] prayed [in the corner of the mosque], then came out, took the reins of his camel and departed. When Mu’aadh had prayed, this was mentioned to him, so he said: “He surely has some hypocrisy in him! I will surely tell the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) what he has done.” The young man said: “And I will tell the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) what he has done.” So in the morning they came to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and Mu’aadh informed him of what the young man had done. The young man said: “O Messenger of Allaah! He stays a long time with you, and then he returns and lengthens it for us.” So the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Are you one who causes great trouble, Mu’aadh?! and he said to the young man169: What do you do when you pray, son of my brother? He said: “I recite the opening chapter of the Book, then I ask Allaah for the Garden, and seek refuge with Him from the Fire. I know neither your dandanah170 nor the dandanah of Mu’aadh!” So the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: I and Mu’aadh are similar in this.

The narrator said: The young man said, “But Mu’aadh will know (about me) on going to the people when they will have been informed that the enemy has arrived.” The narrator said: So the enemy came, and the young man attained shahaadah (martyrdom). So after that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said to Mu’aadh, What did the one disputing with me and you do? He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, he was true to Allaah, and I spoke falsely – he was martyred.”171

Quiet and Loud Recitation in the Five Prayers and others

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to recite loudly in the morning prayer and in the first two rak’ahs of Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’, and quietly in Zuhr, ‘Asr, the third rak’ah of Maghrib and the last two rak’ahs of Ishaa’.172

They could tell when he was reciting quietly from the movement of his beard173, and because he would let them hear an aayah or so sometimes174.

He also recited loudly in Friday prayer and the two ‘Eid prayers175, in the prayer for rain176, and in the eclipse prayer177.

Quiet and Loud Recitation in the Night Prayer (Tahajjud)178

As for night prayer, he would sometimes recite quietly and sometimes loudly179, and “he used to recite in his house such that he could be heard in the courtyard.”180 “Occasionally he would raise his voice more than that until someone lying in bed could hear him”181 (i.e. from outside the courtyard).

He ordered Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (Allaah be pleased with them) likewise, when:

“he came out at night to find Abu Bakr (Allaah be pleased with him) praying in a low voice, and he passed by ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (Allaah be pleased with him) who was praying in a loud voice. Later, when they gathered around the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: O Abu Bakr, I passed by you and you were praying in a low voice? He said: “I let Him whom I was consulting hear, O Messenger of Allaah.” He said to ‘Umar: I passed by you and you were praying raising your voice? So he said: “O Messenger of Allaah, I repel drowsiness and keep the devil away.” The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: O Abu Bakr, raise your voice a little bit and to ‘Umar: lower your voice a little bit.182

He used to say: The one who recites the Qur’aan loudly is like the one who gives charity loudly, and the one who recites the Qur’aan quietly is like the one who gives charity quietly.183

What he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to Recite in the Different Prayers

As for which soorahs and aayaat he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to recite in prayer, this varied according to the different prayers. The details now follow, beginning with the first of the five prayers:

1 – Fajr Prayer

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to recite the longer mufassal184 surahs185, hence “he (sometimes) recited al-Waaqi’ah (56:96) and similar surahs in two rak’ahs”186.

He recited from soorah at-Toor (52:49) during the Farewell Pilgrimage.187

Sometimes “he would recite soorah Qaaf (50:45) or similar [in the first rak’ah].”188

Sometimes “he would recite the shorter mufassal surahs, such as “When the sun is folded up” (at-Takweer 81:29).”189

Once, he recited “When the Earth is shaken” (Zilzaal 99:8) in both rak’ahs, so that the narrator said, “I do not know whether the Messenger of Allaah forgot or recited it on purpose.”190

Once, on a journey, he recited “Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Daybreak” (Falaq 113:5) and “Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Mankind” (Naas 114:6).191 He also said to ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (may Allaah be pleased with him): Recite the mu’awwadhatain192 in your prayer, for no seeker of refuge has sought refuge by means of anything like them.193

Sometimes he used to recite more than that: “he would recite sixty aayaat or more”194 – one of the narrators said, “I do not know whether this was in each rak’ah or in total.”

He used to recite soorah ar-Room (30:60)195 and sometimes soorah Yaa Sin (36:83)196.

Once, “he prayed the Subh [i.e. Fajr Prayer] in Makkah and started reciting soorah al-Mu’minoon (23:118) until, when he got to the mention of Moosaa and Haaroon or the mention of ‘Isa197 – one of the narrators was not sure – he started coughing and so made rukoo’.”198

Sometimes, “he would lead them in Fajr with as-Saaffaat” (77:182).199

“In Fajr on Friday, he would recite as-Sajdah (32:30) [in the first rak’ah, and, in the second,] ad-Dahr” (76:31).200

He used to make the first rak’ah longer than the second.201

Recitation in the Sunnah prayer before Fajr

His recitation in the two rak’ahs of sunnah in Fajr used to be extremely short202, so much so that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) used to say: “Has he recited soorah al- Faatihah or not ?”203

Sometimes, after al-Faatihah, he would recite the aayah “Say: We believe in Allaah and the revelation given to us…” (Baqarah 2:136) in the first rak’ah; in the second, the aayah “Say: O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you…” (aal-‘Imraan 3:64).204 Occasionally, he would recite instead of the latter, “When ‘Isa found unbelief on their part…” (aal-‘Imraan 3:52).205

Sometimes he would recite soorah al-Kaafiroon (109:6) in the first rak’ah, and soorah al-Ikhlaas (112:4) in the second;206 also, he used to say: An excellent pair of soorahs they are!207 He heard a man reciting the former soorah in the first rak’ah, so he said, This is a slave who believes in his Lord. Then the man recited the latter soorah in the second rak’ah, so he said, This is a slave who knows his Lord.208

2- Zuhr Prayer

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to recite al-Faatihah and two soorahs in the first two rak’ahs, making the first one longer than the second.”209

Sometimes he would make lengthen it to the extent that “the Zuhr prayer would have started, and someone could go to a plain: al-Baqi,’ fulfil his need, [come back to his place,] make his ablution, and then come (to the mosque) while the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was still in the first rak’ah, it was that long.”210. Also, “they used to think that he did it so that the people could catch the first rak’ah.”211

“He used to recite in each of these two rak’ah about thirty aayaat, such as al-Faatihah followed by soorah as-Sajdah (32:30).”212

Sometimes “he would recite “By the Sky and the Night-Visitant” (Taariq, 86:17), “By the Sky, (displaying) the Constellations” (Burooj, 85:22), “By the Night as it conceals” (Layl, 92:21) and similar soorahs.”213

Occasionally, he recited “When the Sky is rent asunder” (Inshiqaaq 84:25) and similar ones.214

“They could tell that he was reciting in Zuhr and ‘Asr from the movement of his beard.”215

Recitation of Aayaat after al-Faatihah in the last two Rak’ahs

“He used to make the last two rak’ahs about half as long as the first two, about fifteen aayaat216, and sometimes he would recite only al-Faatihah in them.”217

Sometimes “he would let them hear an aayah or so.”218

“They would hear the tones of his recitation of “Glorify the name of your Lord Most High” (A’laa 87:19) and “Has the story reached you of the Overwhelming ?” (Ghaashiyah 88:26).”219

Sometimes “he would recite “By the Sky and the Night-Visitant” (Taariq, 86:17), “By the Sky, (displaying) the Constellations” (Burooj, 85:22), and similar soorahs.”220

Sometimes “he would recite “By the Night as it conceals” (Layl 92:21) and similar soorahs.”221

3- ‘Asr prayer

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to recite al-Faatihah and two (other) soorahs in the first two rak’ahs, making the first one longer than the second”222, and “they used to think that he did it so that the people could catch the rak’ah.”223

“He used to recite about fifteen aayaat in each of the first two rak’ahs, about half as much as he recited in each of the first two rak’ahs of Zuhr, and he used to make the last two rak’ahs about half as long the first two.”224

“He used to recite al-Faatihah in the last two.”225
“He would let them hear an aayah or so sometimes.”226

He used to recite the surahs mentioned under “Zuhr prayer” above.

4- Maghrib prayer

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to (sometimes) recite the short mufassal soorahs”227, so that “when they had finished praying with him, they could go away and (it was possible to) shoot an arrow and see where it landed.”228 Once, “while on a journey, he recited “By the Fig and the Olive” (Teen 95:8) in the second rak’ah.”229

But sometimes he would recite the long or medium mufassal surahs, hence “he would recite “Those who disbelieve and hinder (men) from the Path of Allaah” (Muhammad 47:48);”230 or soorah at-Toor (52:49);231 or soorah al-Mursalaat (77:50), which he recited in the last prayer he prayed.232

Sometimes “he would recite the longer of the two long surahs233 (A’raaf 7:206) [in two rak’ahs].”234 Or he would recite al- Anfaal (8:75) in two rak’ahs.235

Recitation in the sunnah prayer after Maghrib

In this prayer, “he used to recite “Say: O you who reject faith” (Kaafiroon 109:6) and “Say: He is Allaah, the One and Only” (Ikhlaas 112:4).”236

5- ‘Ishaa’ prayer

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would recite the medium mufassal surahs in the first two rak’ahs237, hence “he used to recite “By the Sun and his splendour” (Shams 91:15) and surahs like it.”238

Or “he would recite “When the Sky is rent asunder” (Inshiqaaq 84:25) and make sajdah during it.”239 Also, “he once recited “By the Fig and the Olive” (Teen 95:8) [in the first rak’ah] while on a journey.”240

He forbade prolonging of recitation in ‘Ishaa’, and that was when:

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal led his people in ‘Ishaa’ prayer, and made it very long for them, so one of the Ansaar left and prayed (alone). When Mu’aadh was informed about this, he said: “He is surely a hypocrite”. When the man heard of this, he went to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and told him what Mu’aadh had said, so the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said to him: “Do you want to be on who causes a lot of trouble, Mu’aadh?! When you lead the people, recite “By the Sun and his splendour(Shams 91:15) or “Glorify the Name of your Lord Most High(A’laa 77:19) or “Read in the Name of your Lord” (‘Alaq 96:19) or “By the Night as it conceals(Layl 92:21) [because the old, the weak and those who have a need to fulfil pray behind you].”241

6- Night prayer (Tahajjud)

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would sometimes recite loudly in it and sometimes quietly,242 He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would shorten his recitation in this sometimes and lengthen it sometimes, occasionally making it so exceedingly long that ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) once said: “I prayed with the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) one night, and he carried on standing for so long that I was struck by a wrong idea.” He was asked, “What was this idea?” He said: “I thought I would sit down and leave the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)!”243

Also Hudhaifah ibn al-Yamaan said:

“I prayed with the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that night when he started soorah al-Baqarah (2:286). So I said (to myself), “He will make rukoo’ after one hundred aayaat”. But he carried on after that, so I thought, “He will finish it (the soorah) in two rak’ahs”. But he carried on, so I thought, “He will make rukoo’ when he has finished it.” Then he started soorah an-Nisaa’ (4:176) and recited it all, then he started soorah aal-‘Imraan (3:200)244 and recited it all. He was reciting slowly; when he came to an aayah in which there was glorification of Allaah, he glorified Allaah; at an aayah which had something to be asked for, he asked for it; at mention of seeking refuge, he sought refuge (with Allaah). Then he made rukoo’ … ” to the end of the hadeeth.245

Also, “one night when he was ill he recited the Seven Long surahs.”246

Also, “he would (sometimes) recite one of these surahs in each rak’ah.”247

“It was [totally] unknown for him to recite the whole Qur’aan in one night.”248 In fact, he did not recommend it for ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr (may Allaah be pleased with him) when he said to him:
Recite the whole Qur’aan in each month. I said: “I have the power (to do more than that).” He said: Recite it in twenty nights. I said: “I have the power to do more”. He said: Then recite it in seven days and do not go beyond that.249 Then “he allowed him to recite it in five days.”250 Then “he allowed him to recite it in three days.”251 Further, he forbade him from reciting it in less time than that252, and he gave a reason for that by saying to him: Whoever recites the Qur’aan in less than three days does not understand it.253 In another version: He does not understand, the one who recites the Qur’aan in less than three days.254 Also when he said to him: For every worshipper has a (period of) keenness255 and every (period of) keenness has a lapse256, either towards a sunnah or towards a bid’ah (innovation); so he whose lapse is towards a sunnah has found guidance, and he whose lapse is towards other than that has been destroyed.257

For this reason, “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would not recite the whole Qur’aan in less than three days.”258

He used to say: Whoever prays at night reciting two hundred aayaat will be written down as one of the sincere devotees.259 Also, “he used to recite soorah Bani Israa’eel (17:111) and soorah az-Zumar (39:75) every night.”260 He also used to say: Whoever prays at night reciting a hundred aayaat will not be written down as one of the heedless.261 Sometimes “he would recite about fifty aayaat or more in each rak’ah”262, or he “would recite about as much as soorah al-Muzzammil (73:20).”263

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would not pray all through the night”264 except rarely, for once:

” ‘Abdullaah ibn Khabbaab ibn al-Arat – who was present at (the Battle of) Badr with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – stayed up the whole night with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) (in another version: a night when he prayed throughout it) until it was dawn. So when he finished his prayer, Khabbaab said to him: “O Messenger of Allaah, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you! Tonight, you have prayed a prayer the like of which I have never seen?” He said: Yes, it was a prayer of hope and fear; [indeed] I asked my Lord, Mighty and Sublime, three things; He granted me two, but refused me one. I asked my Lord that He would not destroy us the way the nations before us were (in another version: that He would not destroy my ummah with famine) and He granted me this; I asked my Lord, Mighty and Sublime, that He would not impose on us an enemy from outside us, and He granted me this; and I asked my Lord not to cover us with confusion in party strife, but He refused me this.” “265

Also, one night he stood (in prayer) repeating one aayah until it was dawn:

“If You do punish them, they are Your servants; if You do forgive them, You are indeed the Exalted in Power, the Wise.” (Maa’idah 5:121) [with it he bowed, with it he prostrated, and with it he supplicated], [so in the morning Abu Dharr (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) said to him: “O Messenger of Allaah, you did not stop reciting this aayah until it was morning; you bowed with it and you prostrated with it] [and you supplicated with it,] [whereas Allaah has taught you the whole Qur’aan;] [if one of us were to do this, we would be stern with him?] [He said: Indeed I asked my Lord, the Mighty and Sublime, for intercession for my ummah: He granted me it, and it will be possible if Allaah wills for whoever does not associate any partners with Allaah.266

A man said to him: “O Messenger of Allaah, I have a neighbour who stands (in prayer) at night and does not recite anything except “Say: He is Allaah the One and Only” (Ikhlaas 112:4), [repeating it,] [not adding anything else,] as if he considers it little.” So the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: By Him in Whose Hand is my soul, it is worth a third of the Qur’aan.267

7- Witr prayer

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to recite “Glorify the Name of Your Lord Most High” (al-A’laa 87:19) in the first rak’ah, “Say: O you who disbelieve” (Kaafiroon 109:6) in the second, and “Say: He is Allaah the One and Only” (Ikhlaas 112:4) in the third.268 Sometimes he would add on to the last one “Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Daybreak” (Falaq 113:5) and “Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Mankind” (Naas 114:6).269 Once, “he recited a hundred aayaat from soorah an-Nisaa’ (4:176) in the third rak’ah.”270

As for the two rak’ahs after witr271, he used to recite “When the earth is shaken ” (Zilzaal 99:8) and “Say: O you who disbelieve” (Kaafiroon 109:6) in them.272

8- Friday Prayer

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would sometimes recite soorah al-Jumu’ah (62:11) in the first rak’ah and “When the hypocrites come to you” (Munaafiqoon 63:11)273 in the second, sometimes reciting “Has the story reached you of the Overwhelming?” (Ghaashiyah 88:26) instead of the latter.274 Or sometimes “he would recite “Glorify the Name of your Lord Most High” (A’laa 87:19) in the first rak’ah and “Has the story reached you” (Ghaashiyah 88:26) in the second.”275

9-‘Eid Prayer

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would (sometimes) recite “Glorify the Name of your Lord Most High” (A’laa 87:19) in the first rak’ah and “Has the story reached you” (Ghaashiyah 88:26) in the second.”276 Or sometimes “he would recite in them “Qaaaaf. By the Glorious Qur’aan.” (Qaaf 50:45) and “The Hour has drawn near” (Qamar 54:55).”277

10- Funeral Prayer

“The Sunnah is to recite al-Faatihah278 [and another soorah] in it.”279 Also, “he would be silent for a while, after the first takbeer.”280

Tarteel (Recitation in slow, rhythmic tones), & Making the Voice Beautiful when Reciting

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to recite the Qur’aan in slow, measured rythmic tones as Allaah had instructed him, not racing or hurrying; rather, his was “a recitation clearly- distinguishing each letter”1, so much so that “he would recite a soorah in such slow rhythmic tones that it would be longer than would seem possible.”2

He also used to say: It will be said to the reciter of the Qur’aan (on the Day of Judgment), ‘Recite and ascend; recite slowly and rhythmically as you used to do in the previous world; your place will be at the last aayah you recite.3

He “used to prolong his recitation (at a letter which can be prolonged), such as at bismil-laah, at ar-rahmaan, and at ar- raheem”4, and at “nadeed” (Qaaf 50:10)5 & their like.

He used to stop at the end of an aayah, as has already been explained.6

Sometimes “he would recite in an attractive vibrating tone7, as he did on the Day of the Conquest of Makkah, when, while on his she-camel, he recited soorah al-Fath (48:29) [very softly]8, and ‘Abdullaah ibn Mughaffal narrated this attractive tone thus : aaa.”9

He used to command making one’s voice beautiful when reciting the Qur’aan, saying

Beautify the Qur’aan with your voices [for a fine voice increases the Qur’aan in beauty]10 and

Truly, the one who has one of the finest voices among the people for reciting the Qur’aan is the one whom you think fears Allaah when you hear him recite.11

He also used to command recitation of the Qur’aan in a pleasant tone, saying: Study the Book of Allaah; recite it repeatedly; acquire (memorise) it; and recite it in a melodious tone, for by Him in whose Hand is my soul, it runs away quicker than camels from their tying ropes.12

He also used to say, He who does not recite the Qur’aan in a pleasant tone is not of us13 and

Allaah does not listen to anything as he listens (in some versions: as he is listening) to a prophet [with a nice voice, and in one version: with a nice melody] who recites the Qur’aan in a pleasant tone14 [loudly].15

He said to Abu Moosaa al-Ash’ari (radi Allaahu ‘anhu),

Had you seen me while I was listening to your recitation yesterday! You have surely been given one of the musical wind- instruments16 of the family of Daawood! [So Abu Moosaa said: “Had I known you were there, I would have made my voice more pleasant and emotional for you].”17

Correcting the Imaam

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) set the example of correcting the imaam when his recitation becomes mixed up, when once “he prayed, reciting loudly, and his recitation became mixed up, so when he finished, he said to Ubayy: Did you pray with us? He replied, ‘Yes.’ He said, So what prevented you [from correcting me]?”18

Seeking Refuge & Spitting Lightly during Prayer in order to Repel Temptation

‘Uthmaan ibn Abi l-‘Aas (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) said to him, “O Messenger of Allaah! The devil comes between me and my prayer and confuses me in my recitation!” So the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, That is a devil called Khinzab, so when you detect him, seek refuge with Allaah from him, and spit lightly19 on your left three times. He said, “So when I did that, Allaah caused him to go away from me.”20

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)The Rukoo’ (Bowing)

The Rukoo’ (Bowing)

After completing his recitation, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would pause for a moment21, then raise his hands22 in the way described earlier under the “Opening Takbeer”, say takbeer23, and make rukoo’.24

He also ordered “the one who prayed badly” likewise, saying to him, Indeed, the prayer of one of you is not complete until he makes an excellent ablution as Allaah has commanded him to … then he celebrates Allaah’s greatness, praises and glorifies Him, then recites the Qur’aan as much as is easy for him from what Allaah has taught him and allowed him, then says takbeer and makes rukoo’ [and places his hands on his knees] until his joints are at ease and relaxed25

The Rukoo’ Described

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would place his palms on his knees”26, and “would order them to do likewise”27, as he ordered “the one who prayed badly” in the afore-mentioned hadeeth.

“He would put his hands firmly on his knees [as though he were grasping them]”28, and “would space his fingers out”29, ordering “the one who prayed badly” likewise, saying: When you make rukoo’, place your palms on your knees, then space your fingers out, then remain (like that) until every limb takes its (proper) place.30

“He used to spread himself (i.e., not be in a compact position), and keep his elbows away from his sides.”31

“When he made rukoo’, he would spread his back and make it level”32, “such that if water were poured on it, it (the water) would stay there (i.e., not run off).”33 He also said to “the one who prayed badly”, When you make rukoo’, put your palms on your knees, spread your back (flat) and hold firm in your rukoo’.34

“He would neither let his head droop nor raise it (i.e. higher than his back)”35, but it would be in between.36

The Obligation of Being at Ease in Rukoo’

He used to be at ease in his rukoo’, and ordered “the one who prayed badly” to be so, as has been mentioned in the first section on rukoo’.

He used to say, Complete the rukoo’ and sujood, for by Him in whose Hand is my soul, I surely see you behind my back37 when you make rukoo’ and sujood.38

“He saw a man praying not completing his rukoo’ properly, and pecking in his sujood, so he said, Were this man to die in this state, he would die on a faith other than that of Muhammad, [pecking in his prayer as a crow pecks at blood; he who does not make rukoo’ completely and pecks in his sujood is like the hungry person who eats one or two dates, which are of no use to him at all.39

Abu Hurairah (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) said, “My close friend (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) forbade me from pecking in my prayer like a cockerel, from looking around like a fox, and from squatting like a monkey.”40

The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) also used to say, The worst thief among men is the one who steals from his prayer. They said, “O Messenger of Allaah, how does he steal from his prayer?” He said, He does not complete its rukoo’ and sujood.41

Once, “he was praying, when he glanced out of the corner of his eye at a man not settling his backbone in rukoo’ and sujood. When he finished, he said, O assembly of Muslims! Verily, the prayer is not valid of the one who does not settle his spine in rukoo’ and sujood.42

He said in another hadeeth, The prayer of a man does not count unless he straightens his back in rukoo’ and sujood.43

The Adhkaar of Rukoo’

He would say different types of remembrance of Allaah and supplication, any one of the following at a time:

How Perfect is my Lord, the Supreme!, three times.44 But sometimes, he would repeat it more than that.45 Once, in night prayer, he repeated it so much that his rukoo’ became nearly as long as his standing before it, in which he had recited three of the Long Soorahs: Baqarah, Nisaa’ and aal- ‘Imraan. This prayer was full of supplication & seeking forgiveness, and the hadeeth has already been mentioned under “Recitation in Night Prayer.”

How Perfect is my Lord, the Supreme, and Praised be He, three times.46

Perfect, Blessed,47 Lord of the Angels and the Spirit.48

How Perfect You are O Allaah, and Praises are for You. O Allaah, forgive me. He would say it often in his rukoo’ and sujood, implementing (the order of) the Qur’aan.49

O Allaah! To You I have bowed; in You I have believed; to You I have submitted; [You are my Lord]; humbled for You are my hearing, my seeing, my marrow, my bone (in one narration: my bones), my sinews, [and whatever my feet carry50 (are humbled) for Allaah, Lord of the Worlds].51

O Allaah! to You I have bowed; in You I have believed; to You I have submitted; in You I have placed my trust; You are my Lord; my hearing, my seeing, my blood, my flesh, my bones, and my sinews are humbled for Allaah, Lord of the Worlds.52

How Perfect is He Who has all Power, Kingdom, Magnificence and Supremity, which he used to say in night prayer.

Lengthening the Rukoo’

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make his rukoo’, his standing after rukoo’, his sujood, and his sitting in between the two sajdahs, nearly equal in length.”53

Forbiddance of Reciting the Qur’aan in Rukoo’

“He used to forbid recitation of the Qur’aan in rukoo’ and sujood.”54 Further, he used to say, Verily, I have indeed been forbidden from reciting the Qur’aan in rukoo’ or sujood. In the rukoo’, therefore, glorify the Supremity of the Lord, Mighty and Sublime, in it; as for the sujood, exert yourselves in supplication in it, for it is most likely that you will be answered.55

Straightening up from the Rukoo’, & what is to be said then

Next, “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would straighten up his back out of rukoo’, saying,

(Allaah listens to the one who praises Him).56

He also ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do that, when he said to him: No person’s prayer is complete until … he has said takbeer … then made rukoo’ … then has said “Allaah listens to the one who praises Him” until he is standing straight.”57 When he raised his head, he would stand straight until every vertebra returned to its place.58

Next, “he would say while standing:

(Our Lord, [and] to You be all Praise).59

He has commanded all worshippers, whether behind an imaam or not, to do the above on rising from rukoo’, by saying Pray as you have seen me praying.60

He also used to say, The imaam is there to be followed … when he has said ‘Allaah listens to the one who praises Him’ then say, ‘[O Allaah!] Our Lord, and to You be all Praise’; Allaah will listen to you, for indeed, Allaah, Blessed and Exalted, has said via the tongue of His Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): Allaah listens to the one who praises Him.’61

He also gave a reason for this command in another hadeeth, saying: for he whose saying coincides with that of the angels will have his past sins forgiven.62

He used to raise his hands when straightening up63, in the ways described under the Opening Takbeer.

While standing, he would say, as previously-mentioned,

Our Lord, and to You be all Praise64; or

Our Lord, to You be all Praise.65

Sometimes, he would add at the beginning of either of these:

O Allaah! …66

He used to order others to do this, saying, “When the imaam says: Allaah listens to the one who praises Him, then say: O Allaah! Our Lord, to You be all Praise, for he whose saying coincides with that of the angels will have his past sins forgiven.”67

Sometimes, he would add either:

… Filling the heavens, filling the earth, and filling whatever else You wish68, or

… Filling the heavens, [filling] the earth, whatever is between them, and filling whatever else You wish.69

Sometimes, he would add even further:

Lord of Glory & Majesty! None can withhold what You grant, and none can grant what You withhold; nor can the possessions of an owner benefit him in front of You.70

Or, sometimes, the addition would be:

Filling the heavens, filling the earth, and filling whatever else You wish. Lord of Glory and Majesty! – The truest thing a slave has said, and we are all slaves to You. [O Allaah!] None can withhold what You grant, [and none can grant what You withhold,] nor can the possessions of an owner benefit him in front of You.71

Sometimes, he would say the following during night prayer:

To my Lord be all Praise, to my Lord be all Praise, repeating it until his standing was about as long as his rukoo’, which had been nearly as long as his first standing, in which he had recited soorah al-Baqarah.72

Our Lord, and to You be all Praise, so much pure praise, inherently blessed, [externally blessed, as our Lord loves and is pleased with].73

A man praying behind him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said this after he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had raised his head from rukoo’ and said: Allaah listens to the one who praises Him. When the Messenger of Allaah had finished his prayer, he said, Who was the one speaking just now? The man said, “It was I, O Messenger of Allaah.” So the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, I saw over thirty angels hurrying to be the first one to write it down.74

Lengthening this Standing, & the Obligation to be at Ease in it

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make this standing about as long as his rukoo’, as has been mentioned; in fact, “he would stand (for so long) sometimes that one would say, ‘He has forgotten’, [because of his standing for so long.]”75

He used to instruct them to be at ease in it; hence, he said to “the one who prayed badly”, … Next, raise your head until you are standing straight [and every bone has taken its proper place] – in another narration, When you rise, make your spine upright and raise your head, until the bones return to their joints.76

He also reminded him: that no-one’s prayer is complete unless he does that, and used to say: Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, does not look at the prayer of the slave who does not make his backbone upright in between his bowings and prostrations.77

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)The Sujood (Prostration)

The Sujood (Prostration)

Next, “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would say takbeer and go down into sajdah”78, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do so, saying to him, No one’s prayer is complete unless … he says: Allaah listens to the one who praises Him and stands up straight, then says: Allaah is the Greatest and prostrates such that his joints are at rest.79

Also, “when he wanted to perform sajdah, he would say takbeer, [separate his hands from his sides,] and then perform sajdah.”80

Sometimes, “he would raise his hands when performing sajdah.”81

Going Down into the Sajdah on the Hands

“He used to place his hands on the ground before his knees.”82

He used to instruct likewise, saying, When one of you performs sajdah, he should not kneel like a camel, but should place his hands before his knees.83

He also used to say, Verily, the hands prostrate as the face prostrates, so when one of you places his face (on the ground), he should place his hands, and when he raises it, he should raise them.84

The Sajdah Described

“He would support himself on his palms [and spread them]”85, “put his fingers together”86, and “point them towards the qiblah.”87

Also, “he would put them (his palms) level with his shoulders”88, and sometimes “level with his ears”89. “He would put his nose and forehead firmly on the ground.”90

He said to “the one who prayed badly”, When you prostrate, then be firm in your prostration91; in one narration: When you prostrate, put your face and hands down firmly, until all of your bones are relaxed in their proper places.92

He also used to say, “There is no prayer for the one whose nose does not feel as much of the ground as the forehead.93

“He used to put his knees and toes down firmly”94, “point with the front of the toes towards the qiblah”95, “put his heels together”96, “keep his feet upright”97, and “ordered likewise.”98

Hence, these are the seven limbs on which he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would prostrate: the palms, the knees, the feet, and the forehead and nose – counting the last two as one limb in prostration, as he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: I have been ordered to prostrate (in one narration: we have been ordered to prostrate) on seven bones: on the forehead …, and he indicated by moving his hand99 around his nose, the hands (in one version: the palms), the knees and the toes, and not to tuck up100 the garments and hair.101

He also used to say, When a slave prostrates, seven limbs prostrate with him: his face, his palms, his knees and his feet.102

He said about a man who was praying with his hair tied103 behind him, His example is surely like that of someone who prays with his hands bound (behind his back).104 He also said, That is the saddle of the devil, i.e. where the devil sits, referring to the knots in the hair.105

“He would not rest his fore-arms on the ground”106, but “would raise them above the ground, and keep them away from his sides such that the whiteness of his armpits could be seen from behind”107, and also “such that if a small lamb or kid wanted to pass under his arms, it would have been able to do so.”108

He would do this to such an extent that one of his Companions said, “We used to feel sorry for the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) because of the way he kept his hands away from his sides.”109

He used to order likewise, saying, When you perform sajdah, place your palms (on the ground) and raise your elbows110, and Be level in sujood, and none of you should spread his fore- arms like the spreading of a dog (in one narration: like a dog spreads them)111. In a separate hadeeth, None of you should rest arms on the ground the way a dog rests them.112

He also used to say, Do not spread your arms [the way a beast of prey does], rest on your palms and keep your upper arms apart, for when you do all that, every one of your limbs prostrates with you.113

 

The Obligation to be at Ease in Sujood

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to command the completion of rukoo’ and sujood, comparing someone not doing so to the hungry man who eats one or two dates, which are of no use to him, and also saying about him, he is indeed one of the worst thieves among the people.

He also ruled that the prayer of one who does not straighten his spine fully in rukoo’ and sujood is invalid, as has been mentioned under “Rukoo'”, and ordered “the one who prayed badly” to be at ease in his sujood, as mentioned before.

The Adhkaar of Sujood

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would say any one of the following remembrances of Allaah and supplications in this posture:

How Perfect is my Lord, the Most High, three times.114
Sometimes, “he would repeat it more times than that.”115
Once, he repeated it so much that his sujood were nearly as long as his standing, in which he had recited three of the Long Soorahs: al-Baqarah, an-Nisaa’ and aal-‘Imraan. That prayer was full of supplication and seeking of forgiveness, as mentioned before under “Night Prayer”.

How Perfect is my Lord, the Most High, and Praised be He, three times.116

Perfect, Blessed, Lord of the Angels and the Spirit.117

How perfect You are O Allaah, our Lord, and Praised. O Allaah! Forgive me, which he would say often in his rukoo’ and sujood, implementing the order of the Qur’aan.118

O Allaah! For you I have prostrated; in You I have believed; to You I have submitted; [You are my Lord;] my face has prostrated for the One Who created it and shaped it , [shaped it excellently,] then brought forth its hearing and vision: [so] blessed be Allaah, the Best to Create!119

O Allaah! Forgive me all my sins: the minor and the major, the first and the last, the open and the hidden.120

My person and my shadow have prostrated to You; my heart has believed in You; I acknowledge Your favours towards me: here are my hands and whatever I have earned against myself.121

How Perfect is He Who has all Power, Kingdom, Magnificence and Supremity122, which he would say in night prayer, as with the following ones:

How perfect You are [O Allaah] and Praised. None has the right to be worshipped except you.123

O Allaah! Forgive me what (sins) I have concealed and what (sins) I have done openly.124

O Allaah! Place light in my heart; [and light in my tongue;] and place light in my hearing; and place light in my seeing; and place light from below me; and place light from above me, and light on my right, and light on my left; and place light ahead of me; and place light behind me; [and place light in my self;] and make the light greater for me.125

[O Allaah!] [Indeed] I seek refuge with Your Pleasure from Your Anger; [I seek refuge] with Your Pardons from Your Punishment; I seek refuge with You from You. I cannot count all exultations upon You; You are as You have extolled Yourself.126

Forbiddance of Reciting the Qur’aan in Sujood

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to forbid recitation of the Qur’aan in rukoo’ and sujood, and commanded striving in, and a lot of, supplication in this posture, as explained previously under “Rukoo'”. He also used to say, The slave is closest to his Lord when he is prostrating, so increase supplication [in it].127

 

Lengthening the Sajdah

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would make his sujood about as long as his rukoo’, and sometimes he would make it extremely long due to the circumstances, as one of his Companions said:

“The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came out to us for one of the two later prayers, [Zuhr or ‘Asr,] carrying Hasan or Husain. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) then came to the front and put him down [next to his right foot], said takbeer for the prayer and commenced praying. During the prayer, he performed a very long prostration, so I raised my head [from among the people], and there was the child, on the back of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), who was in prostration. I then returned to my prostration. When the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had offered the prayer, the people said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! In the middle of [this] your prayer, you performed a prostration and lengthened it so much that we thought either something had happened, or that you were receiving revelation!’ He said, Neither of those was the case: actually, my son made me his mount, so I did not want to hurry him until he had satisfied his wish 128

In another hadeeth, “He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was praying. When he performed sajdah, al-Hasan and al-Husain jumped onto his back. When the people tried to stop them, he gestured to them to leave the two alone. After offering his prayer, he placed them in his lap and said, Whoever loves me should love these two.129

The Excellence of the Sajdah

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to say, There is no one among my ummah whom I will not recognise on the Day of Resurrection. They said, “How will you recognise them, O Messenger of Allaah, among the multitude of created beings?” He said, Do you not see that were one of you to enter an enclosure in which there was a jet black130 steed and a horse with a white forehead and legs131, would you not recognise the latter from the former? They said, “Of course.” He said, Thus, my ummah on that day will surely have white faces132 because of sujood, and white arms and feet133 because of ablution.134

He would also say, When Allaah intends to have mercy on whomsoever he wishes of the people of the Fire, He will order the angels to bring out whoever used to worship Allaah; so they will bring them out, recognising them from the marks of sujood, for Allaah has prohibited the Fire from devouring the marks of sujood. Thus, they will be brought out from the Fire, for the Fire devours all of a son of Aadam except the marks of sujood.135

Sajdah on the Ground, and on Mats136

He would often prostrate on the (bare) ground.137

“His Companions would pray with him in the intense heat, so when one of them could not press his forehead against the ground, he would spread his robe and prostrate on that.”138

He also used to say, the whole earth has been made a place of worship (masjid) and a purification for me and my ummah; so wherever prayer becomes due on someone of my ummah, he has his place of worship (masjid) and his purification next to him. Those before me used to think that this was too much: indeed, they would only pray in their churches and synagogues.139

Sometimes, he would prostrate in mud and water, and that happened to him once at dawn on the twenty-first night of Ramadaan, when it rained and the roof of the mosque, which was made of palm-branches, was washed away. So he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prostrated in mud and water; Abu Sa’eed al- Khudri said, “So I saw, with my own eyes, the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), with traces of mud and water on his forehead and nose.”140

Also, “he would pray on a khumrah”141 sometimes, or “on a mat”142 sometimes, and “he prayed on it once when it had become blackened due to prolonged use.”143

Rising from Sajdah

Next, “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would raise his head from prostration while saying takbeer”144, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do that, saying, The prayer of any person is not complete until … he prostrates until his limbs are at rest, then he says, ‘Allah is the Greatest’ and raises his head until he is sitting straight.145 Also, “he would raise his hands with this takbeer” sometimes.146

To sit muftarishan between the Two Sajdahs

Next, “he would lay his left foot along the ground and sit on it [relaxed]”147, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” thus, saying to him, When you prostrate, prostrate firmly, then when you rise, sit on your left thigh.148

“He would have his right foot upright”149, and “point its toes towards the qiblah.”150 [See diagram – qss]

Iq’aa’ Between the Two Sajdahs

“He would sometimes practise iq’aa’ [resting on both his heels and (all) his toes].”151

The Obligation of Being at Ease between the Two Sajdahs

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would be relaxed until every bone returned to its (proper) position”152, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” likewise, and said to him, The prayer of any of you is not complete until he does this.153

Lengthening the Sitting between the Two Sajdahs

Also, “he would lengthen it until it was about almost as long as his sajdah”154, and sometimes, “he would remain (in this position) until one would say: He has forgotten.”155

The Adhkaar between the Two Sajdahs

In this sitting, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would say:

O Allaah! (in one version: O my Lord!) Forgive me; have mercy on me; [strengthen me;] [raise my rank;] guide me; [pardon me;] sustain me.156
Or sometimes, he would say:

O my Lord! Forgive me, forgive me.157

He would say the above two in night prayer also.158

The Second Sajdah

Next, “he would say takbeer and prostrate for the second time.”159 He also ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do so, saying to him after he had ordered him to be at ease between sajdahs, then say ‘Allaah is the Greatest’ and prostrate until your joints are relaxed [and do that in all your prayer].160 He would perform this sajdah exactly as he performed the first one. Also, “he would raise his hands with this takbeer” sometimes.161

Next, “he would raise his head while saying takbeer”162, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do likewise, saying to him after ordering him to prostrate for the second time, “then raise your head and say takbeer163. He also said to him, “[then do that in all your bowings and prostrations,] for if you do that, your prayer will be complete, and if you fall short in any of this, you will be deficient in your prayer.164 Also, “he would raise his hands”165 sometimes with this takbeer.

The Sitting of Rest

Next, “he would sit straight [on his left foot, upright, until every bone returned to its position].”166

Supporting Oneself with the Hands on Rising for the Next Rak’ah

Next, “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would get up for the second rak’ah, supporting himself on the ground.”167 Also, “he would clench his fists168 during prayer: supporting himself with his hands when getting up.”169

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)The Second Rak’ah 

The Second Rak’ah

“When he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) got up for the second rak’ah, he would commence with All Praise be to Allaah (Faatihah 1:1), without pausing.”170

He would perform this rak’ah exactly as he performed the first, except that he would make it shorter than the first, as before.

The Obligation of Reciting Soorah al-Faatihah in every Rak’ah

He ordered “the one who prayed badly” to recite al-Faatihah in every rak’ah, when he said to him after ordering him to recite it in the first rak’ah171, then do that throughout your prayer172 (in one narration: in every rak’ah).173 He also used to say, There is recitation in every rak’ah.174

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)The First Tashahhud 

Previous Next Table of Contents

The First Tashahhud

Next, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would sit for tashahhud after finishing the second rak’ah. In a two-rak’ah prayer such as Fajr, “he would sit muftarishan”175, as he used to sit between the two sajdahs, and “he would sit in the first tashahhud similarly”176 in a three- or four-rak’ah prayer. [see diagram – qss]

He also ordered “the one who prayed badly” thus, saying to him, When you sit in the middle of the prayer, then be calm, spread your left thigh and perform tashahhud.177

Abu Hurairah (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) said, “My friend (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) forbade me from squatting (iq’aa’) like a dog”178; in another hadeeth, “he used to forbid the squatting of the devil.”179

“When he sat in tashahhud, he would place his right palm on his right thigh (in one narration: knee), and his left palm on his left thigh (in one narration: knee, spreading it upon it)”180; and “he would put the end of his right elbow on his right thigh.”181

Also, “he forbade a man who was sitting in prayer resting on his left hand, and said: Verily, that is the prayer of the Jews182; in one wording, Do not sit like this, for indeed this is the way of sitting of those who are punished183; in another hadeeth, It is the sitting posture of those who incurred (Allaah’s) anger.184

Moving the Finger in Tashahhud

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would spread his left palm on his left knee, clench all the fingers of his right hand, point with the finger adjacent to the thumb towards the qiblah, and fix his sight on it (i.e. the finger).”185

Also, “when he pointed with his finger, he would put his thumb on his middle finger”186, and sometimes “he would make a circle with these two.”187

“When he raised his finger, he would move it, supplicating with it”188, and he used to say, “It is surely more powerful against the devil than iron, meaning the forefinger.189

Also, “the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to remind each other, that is, about pointing with the finger when supplicating.”190

Once, “he saw a man supplicating with two fingers, so he said, “Make it one, [make it one,]” and indicated with his forefinger.”191

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would do this in both tashahhuds.”192

The Obligation of the First Tashahhud, & theValidity of Supplication during it

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would recite the Tahiyyah after every two rak’ahs”193; “the first thing he would say in this sitting would be: All compliments be to Allaah.194

“When he forgot to perform the tashahhud after the first two rak’ahs, he would prostrate (twice) for forgetfulness.”195

He used to order them to perform tashahhud, saying, When you sit after every two rak’ahs, then say: All compliments … and then each of you should select the supplication he likes best and supplicate Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, [with it]196; in another version: Say, All compliments … in every sitting197, and he also ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do so, as has been mentioned.

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would teach them the tashahhud the way he taught them Soorahs of the Qur’aan”198, and “the Sunnah is to say it quietly.”199

The Manner of Tashahhud

He taught several ways of tashahhud:

  1. The tashahhud of Ibn Mas’ood, who said, “The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) taught me the tashahhud, [with] my palm between his palms, the way he taught me Soorahs of the Qur’aan:

All compliments200, prayers201 and pure words202 are due to Allaah. Peace203 be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings204. Peace be on us, and on the righteous slaves of Allaah. [For when one says that, it includes every righteous slave in the heaven and the earth.] I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.

[This was while he was among us, but after he was taken, we would say:
[Peace be on the Prophet].”205

  1. The tashahhud of Ibn ‘Abbaas: “The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to teach us the tashahhud the way he taught us [soorahs of] the Qur’aan; he used to say,

All compliments, blessed words, prayers, pure words are due to Allaah. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allaah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and [I bear witness] that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah (in one narration: … is His slave and messenger).206

  1. The tashahhud of Ibn ‘Umar, who reported the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) as saying in the tashahhud:

All compliments, prayers and good words are due to Allaah. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah – Ibn ‘Umar said, “I add:”207and His blessings. – Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allaah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah – Ibn ‘Umar said, “I add:”208alone, He has no partner, – and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.209

  1. The tashahhud of Abu Moosaa al-Ash’ari, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, … when you are sitting, the first thing each of you says should be:

All compliments, good words and prayers are due to Allaah. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings. Peace be on us, and on the righteous slaves of Allaah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah [alone, He has no partner], and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger – seven phrases, and they are the greetings in the prayer.210

  1. The tashahhud of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, who would teach the people the tashahhud while on the pulpit, saying, “Say:

All compliments are due to Allaah; all pure titles are due to Allaah; all good words [are due to Allaah]; all prayers are due to Allaah. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the righteous slaves of Allaah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.211

As-Salaah ‘alaa an-Nabiyy(Sending Prayers on the Prophet) – Its Place & Manner

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to send prayers on himself in the first tashahhud as well as the other.212 He also established it for his ummah, ordering them to send prayers on him after sending peace on him213, and he taught them several ways of doing so:

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad214, and on his household, and on his wives and progeny, as you sent prayers on the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. And send blessings on Muhammad215, and his household, and his wives and progeny, as you sent blessings on the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.

This supplication he would use himself.216

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on [Ibraaheem, and on]217 the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. O Allaah! send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on [Ibraaheem, and on]218 the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.219

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on Ibraaheem, [and the family of Ibraaheem]; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. And send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on [Ibraaheem, and] the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.220

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad [the Unlettered Prophet], and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on [the family of] Ibraaheem; and send blessings on Muhammad [the Unlettered Prophet] and the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on [the family of] Ibraaheem among the nations; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.221

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, Your slave and messenger, as You sent prayers on [the family of] Ibraaheem. And send blessings on Muhammad [Your slave and messenger], [and the family of Muhammad,] as you sent blessings on Ibraaheem [and on the famly of Ibraaheem].222

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad and [on] his wives and progeny, as You sent prayers on [the family of Ibraaheem]. And send blessings on Muhammad, and [on] his wives and progeny, as You sent blessings on [the family of] Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.223

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, and send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers and sent blessings on Ibraaheem and the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.224

Important Notes about as-Salaah ‘alaa an-Nabiyy – Sending Prayers on the Prophet of the Ummah

1) It can be seen that in most of these ways of sending prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), there is no mention of Ibraaheem separate from his family, the wording being, “… as you have sent prayers on the family of Ibraaheem.” The reason for this is that in ‘Arabic, the family of a man includes the man as well as his dependants, e.g. in the words of the Exalted,

Allaah has chosen Aadam, Nooh, the family of Ibraaheem and the family of ‘Imraan above all people(al-‘Imraan 3:33);

We sent against them a violent tornado with showers of stones, except the family of Loot – We delivered them by early dawn” (Qamar 54:34); similar is his saying (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), O Allaah! send prayers on the family of Abu Awfaa. The phrase Ahl al-Bayt (people of the house) is also like this, e.g.

Allaah’s grace and His blessings be on you, O people of the house” (Houd 11:73). Hence, Ibraaheem is included in “the family of Ibraaheem”.

Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah says,

“Most of the versions have, ‘as you sent prayers on the family of Ibraaheem’ and ‘as you sent blessings on the family of Ibraaheem’; some have ‘Ibraaheem’ himself. This is because he is the cause of all prayers and purifications on them; the rest of his family are secondary recipients of all that. To show these two points, both wordings have been employed separately.”

Further, there is a well-known question among the people of knowledge: about the nature of the comparison in his statement, “as you sent prayers on …”, for it is true that the model for comparison is normally superior to the one being compared; here, the opposite is the case, since Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is greater than Ibraaheem, and so his superiority dictates that the prayers requested are more excellent than any prayers received or to be received by anyone else. The people of knowledge have provided many answers to this, and these can be found in Fath al-Baari and Jalaa’ al-Ifhaam. They amount to about ten views, all of which are unsubstantiated, some weaker than others, except one, a well-supported view, and adopted by Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim. This view is: “The family of Ibraaheem includes many prophets; none like them is found in the family of Muhammad. Therefore, when prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his family are sought similar to that bestowed on Ibraaheem and his family, which includes prophets, the family of Muhammad receives out of that what is appropriate for them. Since the family of Muhammad does not reach the rank of the prophets, the extra blessings and benefit given to the prophets, including Ibraaheem, are left for Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Thus he gains a distinguished position which others cannot reach.”

Ibn al-Qayyim says,

“This is the best of all the previous views: that Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is one of the family of Ibraaheem; in fact, he is the best of the family of Ibraaheem, as ‘Ali ibn Talhah has related from Ibn ‘Abbaas (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) about the saying of the Exalted, “Allaah has chosen Aadam, Nooh, the family of Ibraaheem and the family of ‘Imraan above all people” (aal-‘Imraan 3:33); Ibn ‘Abbaas said, “Muhammad is among the family of Ibraaheem”. This is text for the fact that if other prophets descended from Ibraaheem are included in his family, then the inclusion of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is more fitting. Hence our saying, “… as you sent prayers on the family of Ibraaheem”, includes the prayers sent on him and on the rest of the prophets descended from Ibraaheem. Allaah has then ordered us to specifically send prayers on Muhammad and his family, as much as we send prayers on him, along with the rest of Ibraaheem’s family generally. Therefore, the Prophet’s family receives out of that what is appropriate for them, leaving all of the remainder to him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). There is no doubt that the total amount of prayers received by Ibraaheem’s family, with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) among them, is greater than that received by the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) alone. Therefore, what is sought for him is such a great favour, definitely superior than that sought for Ibraaheem. Hence, the nature of the comparison and its consistency become clear. The prayers sought for him with these words are greater than those requested any other way, since what is requested with the supplication is that it be as much as the model of comparison, and that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) receive a large portion: the comparison dictates that what is requested is more than what was given to Ibraaheem and others. Thus, the excellence and nobility of Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), over and above Ibraaheem and his family, which includes many prophets, is evident, and is as he deserves. This sending of prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) becomes evidence for this excellence of his, and this is no more than he deserves. So, may Allaah send prayers on him and on his family, and send peace on them, many greetings of peace, and reward him from our supplications better than He has rewarded any prophet from his people. O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. And send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.”

2) The reader will see that this part of the Prayer, with all its different types, is always a sending of prayers on the family of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): on his wives and children as well as himself. Therefore, it is neither from the Sunnah, nor carrying out the Prophet’s command, to leave it at “O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad” only. Rather, one of these complete types of supplication must be used, as is reported from his action (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), whether in the first or the last tashahhud. There is text about this from Imaam Shaafi’i in al-Umm: “The tashahhud in the first and second instance is the same thing; by ‘tashahhud’, I mean the bearing of witness and the sending of prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): neither will suffice without the other.”

In fact, one of the most amazing things to arise from this age and its intellectual anarchy is that one person, Muhammad Is’aaf Nashaasheebi, in his book al-Islaam as-Saheeh (“The Correct Islaam”), has the audacity to reject the sending of prayers on the family of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) when sending prayers on him, despite it being firmly established in the Saheehs of al-Bukhaari and Muslim, and elsewhere, on the authority of several Companions, e.g. Ka’b ibn ‘Ujrah, Abu Humaid as-Saa’idi, Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, Abu Mas’ood al-Ansaari, Abu Hurairah and Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullaah! In their ahaadeeth, it is found that they asked the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), “How do we send prayers on you?”, so he taught them this way of doing so. Nashaasheebi’s argument for his view is that Allaah the Exalted did not mention anyone else with the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in His saying:

O you who believe! Send prayers on him, and salute him with all respect.” (Ahzaab 33:56) He then goes on to say in his refutation that the Companions asked him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that question because the meaning of “salaah” was known to them as “supplication”, so they were asking: “How can we supplicate to you?”!

This is a clear deception, for their question was not about the meaning of “salaah” on him, in which case he would have a point, but it was about the manner of doing the salaah on him, as is found in the narrations to which we have referred. Thus it all fits, for they asked him about the way of doing it according to the Sharee’ah, something which they could not possibly find out except from the guidance of the All-Knowing, All-Wise, Giver of the Sharee’ah. Similarly, they could also ask him about the way of performing the Salaah made obligatory by words of the Exalted such as “Establish the Salaah (Prayer)“; for their knowledge of the literal meaning of “Salaah” could not remove their need to ask about its manner according to the Sharee’ah, and this is crystal clear.

As for Nashaasheebi’s argument referred to, it is of no consequence, for it is well-known among the Muslims that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is the expounder of the words of the Lord of the Worlds, as He says:

And We have sent down to you the Message that you may explain clearly to the people what is sent for them” (Nahl 16:44). Hence, the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) explained the way of doing salaah on him, and it included mention of his family, so it is compulsory to accept that from him, due to Allaah’s saying:

So take what the Messenger gives you (Hashr 59:7), and the well-known authentic hadeeth, Verily, I have been given the Qur’aan and something similar to it.225

I really wonder what Nashaasheebi and those taken in by his pompous words would say if someone were to reject the tashahhud in prayer altogether, or reject the menstruating woman’s abstaining from prayer and fasting, all with the argument that Allaah the Exalted did not mention the tashahhud in the Qur’aan; He only mentioned bowing and prostration, and He did not exempt a menstruating woman from prayer and fasting in the Qur’aan!! So, do they agree with such arguments, which are along the lines of his original one, or not? If they do, and we hope not, then they have strayed far, far away from guidance, and have left the mainstream of the Muslims; if they do not, then they are correct in agreeing with us, and their reasons for rejecting those arguments are exactly the same as our reasons for rejecting Nashaasheebi’s original pronouncement, which we have explained clearly.

Therefore beware, O Muslims, of attempting to understand the Qur’aan without recourse to the Sunnah, for you will never be able to do that, even if you were the Seebawaih226 of the age, the expert of the age in the ‘Arabic language. Here is an example in front of you, for this Nashaasheebi is one of the leading scholars of the ‘Arabic language of this period; you have seen how he has strayed, after being deceived by his knowledge of the language, by not seeking the aid of the Sunnah in understanding the Qur’aan; in fact he has rejected this aid, as you know. There are many other examples of this – there is not enough room here to mention them, but what we have mentioned will suffice, and Allaah is the Granter of all capability.

3) The reader will also see that in none of these types of salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is there the word sayyid (chief, leader). The later scholars have differed about the validity of its inclusion in the Ibraaheemee salaah. Due to lack of space we will not go into the details of that nor make mention of those who rejected its validity in keeping with the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)’s complete teaching to his ummah when he instructed, “Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad …” on being asked about the manner of salaah on him, but we will quote the Haafidh Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalaani on this, bearing in mind his position as one of the great Shaafi’i scholars of both hadeeth and fiqh, for contradiction of this teaching of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has become widespread among Shaafi’i scholars!

Haafiz Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghuraabeeli (790- 835 AH), a companion of Ibn Hajr, said, and I quote from his manuscript227:

He (i.e. Ibn Hajr), may Allaah benefit us with his life, was asked about the features of salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), whether during prayer or outside it, compulsory or recommended: Is one of its conditions that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) be attributed with sayaadah (leadership), e.g. ‘O Allaah! send prayers on sayyidinaa (our leader) Muhammad …’ or ‘the foremost of creation’, or ‘the leader of the children of Aadam’ etc.? Or should one stick to ‘O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad’? Which of these two is the better approach: including the word sayyid, due to it being an established attribute of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), or leaving it out due to the absence of it in the narrations? He (Ibn Hajr), may Allaah be pleased with him, replied: “Yes, to follow the narrated wording is superior. It cannot be said, “Maybe the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself did not say it out of modesty, just as he did not say (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) on mention of his name, although his ummah has been encouraged to do so” – for we say that if that were superior, it would have been quoted from the Companions and then from the Successors, but we do not come across it in any narrations from any Companion or Successor. This is despite the volume of quotations from them. We have Imaam Shaafi’i, may Allaah exalt his rank, one of the foremost among men in his respect for the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), saying in the preface to his book which is a base for the people of his madhhab: “O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad …” etc. until the end of what his judgment dictated, “… every time one of the rememberers remembers him, and every time one of the heedless fails to remember him”, which he seems to have deduced from the authentic hadeeth which has in it that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saw the Mother of the Believers engaging in long and numerous glorifications, so he said to her, “You have said words which, if weighed against the following, would be balanced: Glorified be Allaah, as many times as the number of His creation”; he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to like supplications which were concise, but exhaustive in meaning. Qaadi ‘Iyaad set out a chapter about salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in his book ash- Shifaa’ (The Book of Cure), quoting in it narrations from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) on the authority of several Companions and Successors; in none of these is the word sayyid reported:
a) The hadith of ‘Ali, that he used to teach them the manner of salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) by saying, O Allaah, Spreader of Plains, Originator of Heights, send the foremost of Your prayers, the most fertile of Your blessings, and any remaining compliments, on Muhammad, Your slave and messenger, the opener of what is closed.
b) Again from ‘Ali, that he used to say, “The prayers of Allaah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, of the Angels nearest (to Allaah), of the Prophets, of the Sincere ones, of the Witnesses, of the Righteous, and of whatever glorifies You, O Lord of the Worlds, be on Muhammad son of ‘Abdullaah, Seal of the Prophets, Imaam of the Godfearers, … etc.”
c) On the authority of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood, that he used to say, “O Allaah! send Your prayers, Your blessings and Your mercy, on Muhammad, Your slave and messenger, the imaam of goodness, the messenger of mercy, …” etc.
d) From al-Hasan al-Basri, that he used to say, “Whoever wants to drink from the cup which quenches, from the fount of the al-Mustafaa, should say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on his family, his Companions, his wives, his children, his descendants, his household, his in-laws, his helpers, his followers, and all those who love him.” This is what he (Qaadi ‘Iyaad) has written in ash- Shifaa’, regarding the manner of salaah on the Prophet, on the authority of the Companions and those who succeeded them, and he also mentioned other things in it. Yes, it is related in a hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood that in his salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), he would say, “O Allaah! send the best of Your prayers, mercy and blessings on the leader (sayyid) of the messengers …” etc., transmitted by Ibn Maajah, but its isnaad is weak, so the hadeeth of ‘Ali, transmitted by Tabaraani with a acceptable isnaad, takes precedence. This hadeeth has difficult words, which I have reported and explained in the book Fadl an-Nabi (Excellence of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)”) by Abul Hasan ibn al-Faaris. Some Shaafi’is have said that if a man took an oath to send the best salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), the way to fulfil his oath would be to say, “O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad every time the rememberers remember him or the heedless fail to remember him”; Nawawi said, “The one which is most fitting to be designated as correct is that one should say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent prayers on Ibraaheem …” Several of the later scholars have replied to this by saying that in neither of the two ways mentioned above is there anything to prove which is superior as regards narration, but as regards the meaning, then the former is clearly superior. This issue is well-known in the books of fiqh, and of all the scholars of fiqh who addressed this issue, without exception, in none of their words does the word sayyid appear. Had this additional word been commendable, it would not have escaped all of them, leaving them ignorant of it. All good is in following what is narrated, and Allaah knows best.”

Ibn Hajr’s view of the unacceptability of describing the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) as sayyid during the salaah on him in accordance with the Qur’aanic order, is also that of the Hanafi scholars. It is the view which must be adhered to, for it is a true indication of love for him, (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam);

Say: If you do love Allaah, then follow me: Allaah will love you.” (aal-‘Imraan 3:31)

Because of this, Imaam Nawawi said in Rawdah at-Taalibeen (1/265), “The most complete salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is: O Allaah! send your prayers on Muhammad …” etc., corresponding to type no. 3 given, in which there is no mention of sayyid!

4) It should be known that types nos. 1 and 4 are the ones which the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) taught his Companions when they asked about the manner of salaah on him, so this has been used as evidence that these are the best ways of doing the salaah on him, for he would not choose anything for them or himself except the best and noblest. Imaam Nawawi, as mentioned, endorsed (in Rawdah at- Taalibeen) that if a man were to take an oath to do the best possible salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), this could not be fulfilled except in these ways.

Subki has given another reason: whoever does salaah with those types has made salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) with certainty, and whoever does so with other words is in doubt whether or not he has performed the prayers as requested. This is because they said, “How do we send prayers on you?” and he replied, “Say: …”, thus defining their salaah on him as their saying such-and-such. This was mentioned by Haitami in ad-Darr al-Mandood (25/2); he then said (27/1) that the objective is achieved with all the types which have occurred in authentic ahaadeeth.

5) It should be known that it is not valid to combine all these way into one way of salaah, and the same goes for the different tashahhuds given previously. In fact, that would be an innovation in the religion; the Sunnah is to say different ones at different times, as Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah has explained in his discussion of the takbeers of the two ‘Eids (Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa 29/253/1).

6) ‘Allaamah Siddeeq Hasan Khaan says in his book Nuzul al- Abraar bil ‘Ilm al-Ma’thoor min al-Ad’iyah wal-Adhkaar, after giving many ahaadeeth about the excellence of repeated salaah on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) (p. 161):

“There is no doubt that the foremost among the Muslims in sending salaah on him (sall-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) are the People of Hadeeth and the narrators of the purified Sunnah, for it is one of their duties in this noble branch of learning to make salaah on him before every hadeeth, and so their tongues are always engaged in his mention, may Allah grant him mercy and peace. There is no book of Sunnah or collection of hadeeth, be it a jaami’, musnad, mu’jam, juz’, etc., except that it comprises thousands of ahaadeeth; even one of the least bulky ones, Suyooti’s al-Jaami’ as-Sagheer, contains ten thousand ahaadeeth, and the rest of the collections are no different. So this is the Saved Sect: the body of the People of Hadeeth, who will be the closest among men to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) on the Day of Resurrection, and the most likely to be rewarded by his intercession (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), may my mother and father be sacrificed for him! This excellence of the People of Hadeeth cannot be surpassed by anyone unless he does more than what they do, something which is well-nigh impossible. Therefore, O desirer of good, seeker of salvation, no matter what, you should either be a muhaddith, or be close to the muhadditheen; do not be otherwise … for apart from that there is nothing which will benefit you.”

I ask Allaah, Blessed and Exalted, to make me one of these People of Hadeeth, who are the closest among men to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam); perhaps this book will be a testimony to that. May Allaah shower His mercy on Imaam Ahmad, who recited:

The religion of Muhammad is in narrations,
The best mounts for a young man are the traditions;
Turn not away from Hadeeth and its people,
For Opinion is night, while Hadeeth is day,
A young man can be ignorant of the guidance …
Although the sun is shining in all its splendour !

Du’aa’ in the First Tashahhud

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) also set the guidance of du’aa in this tashahhud as well, saying, When you sit after every two rak’ahs, then say: All compliments are due to Allaah … (till the end of that supplication, and then said:) … then he should select of the supplications what is most pleasing to him.228

Standing up for the Third, and then the Fourth, Rak’ah

Next, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would get up for the third rak’ah with takbeer229, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do so: Then do that in every rak’ah, as before.

“When he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) stood from the sitting position, he would say takbeer, and then stand up”230; and “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would raise his hands”231 with this takbeer sometimes.

“When he wanted to stand up for the fourth rak’ah, he would say: Allaah is the Greatest”232, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” likewise, as before, and “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would raise his hands”233 with this takbeer sometimes.

“He would sit up straight on his left foot, at ease, until every bone returned to its proper place, then stand up, supporting himself on the ground; and he would clench his fists234: supporting himself with his hands when standing up.”235

He would recite al-Faatihah in both these rak’ahs, and he ordered “the one who prayed badly” to do that. In Zuhr prayer, he would sometimes add a few aayaat to this, as has been explained under “Recitation in Zuhr Prayer”.

Qunoot in the Five Prayers because of a Calamity

“When he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wanted to supplicate against someone, or supplicate for someone, he would perform qunoot236 in the last rak’ah, after rukoo’; after having said: Allaah listens to the one who praises Him.237 “He would supplicate loudly”238, “raise his hands”239, and “those behind him would say: aameen”240.

“He was known to perform qunoot in all five prayers”241, although “he would only perform qunoot in them when he supplicated for a people or supplicated against a people”242. For example, he once said, O Allaah! rescue al-Waleed ibn al- Waleed, and Salamah ibn Hishaam, and ‘Ayyaash ibn Abi Rabee’ah. O Allaah! harden Your penalty on (the tribe of) Mudar, and cause for it years (of famine) like the years of Yoosuf. [O Allaah! curse Lahyaan, and Ru’l, and Dhakwaan, and ‘Usayyah, who disobeyed Allaah and His Messenger!]243

Then, “he would say: Allaah is the Greatest when he had finished qunoot and prostrate.”244

Qunoot in Witr Prayer

“He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to perform qunoot in the (odd) rak’ah of the Witr prayer”245 sometimes246, and “he would perform it before rukoo’.”247

He taught al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) to say [after finishing his recitation in Witr]:

O Allaah! guide me among those whom You have guided; and pardon me among those who You have pardoned; and turn on me in friendship among those on whom You have turned in friendship; and bless me in what You have bestowed; and save me from the evil of what You have decreed; [for] indeed You decree, and none can influence You; [and] he is not humiliated whom You have befriended; [nor is he honoured who is Your enemy.] Blessed are You, O Lord, and Exalted. [There is no place of safety from You except towards You.]248

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)The Final Tashahhud 

The Final Tashahhud

 

 

The Obligation of this Tashahhud

Next, after completing the fourth rak’ah, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would sit for the last tashahhud. He would instruct regarding it, and do in it, just as he did in the first tashahhud, except that “he would sit mutawarrikan”249, “with his left upper thigh on the ground, and both his feet protruding from one (i.e. the right) side.”250 “He would have his left foot under his (right) thigh and shin”251, “his right foot upright”252 or occasionally “he would lay it along the ground.”253 “His left palm would cover his (left) knee, leaning heavily on it.”254 [see diagram – qss]

He set the example of sending prayers on him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in this tashahhud, as in the first tashahhud; the ways of sending prayer on him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) narrated have been given in that section.

The Obligation of Sending Prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in this Tashahhud

Once, “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) heard a man supplicating in his prayer without glorifying the majesty of Allaah Exalted, nor sending prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so he said: This man has been hasty.” He then called him and said to him and others, “When one of you prays, he should begin with the praise of his Lord, Sublime and Mighty, and his exultation, and then send prayers (in one narration: he should send prayers) on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and then supplicate as he wishes.255

Also, “he heard a man glorifying and praising Allaah, and sending prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in prayer, so the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said to him: Supplicate, and you will be answered; ask, and you will be given.256

The Obligation to Seek Refuge from Four Things before Supplicating

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to say, “When one of you has finished the [last] tashahhud, he should seek refuge with Allaah from four things; [saying:

O Allaah! I truly seek refuge with You] from the punishment of Hellfire, and from the punishment of the grave, and from the trials of living and dying, and from the evil [trials] of the False Christ. [Then he should supplicate for himself with what occurs to him.]”257 – “He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would supplicate with it in his own tashahhud.”258

Also, “he used to teach the Companions (radi Allaahu ‘anhum) this the way he taught them Soorahs of the Qur’aan.”259

Supplication before the Salaam, & its various types

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to use different supplications in his prayer260, supplicating with different ones at different times; he also endorsed other supplications, and “ordered the worshipper to select of them what he wishes.”261 They are:

O Allaah! truly I seek refuge with You from the punishment of the grave, and I seek refuge with you from the trials of the False Christ, and I seek refuge with You from the trials of living and dying. O Allaah! truly I seek refuge with You from sin262 and burden263.”264

O Allaah! truly I seek refuge with You from the evil of what I have done, and from the evil of what I have not done265 [yet].266

O Allaah! call me to account with an easy reckoning.267

O Allaah! [I ask you], by Your knowledge of the Unseen, and Your control over the creation: give me life as long as You know that life is best for me, and take me when death is best for me. O Allaah! I also ask of You fear of You, in secret and in open; I ask of You the word of Truth (in one narration: Wisdom) and justice in anger and in pleasure; I ask of You moderation in poverty and affluence; I ask of You joy which does not fade; I ask of You pleasure [which does not pass away, nor that] which ceases; I ask of You contentment with Your decree; I ask of You coolness of life after death; I ask of You the delight of looking towards Your Face; and [I ask of You] eagerness towards meeting You, not in harmful adversity, nor in misleading afflictions. O Allaah! adorn us with the decoration of eemaan, and make us those who guide and are guided.268

  1. He taught Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) to say:

O Allaah! indeed I have wronged myself greatly, and none can forgive sins except You, so forgive me out of Your forgiveness, and have mercy on me. Truly, You are the Oft- Forgiving, the Most Merciful.269

  1. He instructed ‘Aa’ishah (radi Allaahu ‘anhaa) to say:

O Allaah! indeed I ask of You all Good, [the imminent and the far-off,] that of it which I know and that which I do not know. I seek refuge with You from all Evil, [the imminent and the far-off,] that of it which I know and that which I do not know. I ask of You (in one narration: O Allaah! indeed I ask of You) the Garden, and whatever saying or deed which brings one near to it; I seek refuge with You from the Fire, and (from) whatever saying or deed which brings one near to it. I ask of You (in one narration: O Allaah! indeed I ask of You) [the] good of what was asked of You by Your slave and messenger [Muhammad; and I seek refuge with You from evil of what Your slave and messenger Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sought refuge with You]. [I ask of You] that whatever You have decreed for me, its result [for me] be beneficial.270

  1. He said to a man, What do you say during the prayer? He replied, “I bear witness (i.e. do the tashahhud), then I ask Allaah for the Garden, and I seek refuge with Him from the Fire. However, by Allaah, there is no murmuring271 as good as yours or that of Mu’aadh.” So he said, Our murmuring is like yours.272
  2. He heard a man saying in his tashahhud:

O Allaah! indeed I ask of You, O Allaah (in one narration: by Allaah), the One, the Only, the Absolute, Who begets not and nor is He begotten, and there is none like Him, that You forgive me my sins; indeed You are the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
On this, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, He has been forgiven, he has been forgiven.273

  1. He heard another man say in his tashahhud:

O Allaah! Indeed, I ask of You, by the fact that to You belongs all Praise; there is no (true) god except You, [You alone, You have no partners;] the Bestower of Favours; [O] Originator of the Heavens and the Earth; O One that is Full of Majesty and Honour; O Living One, O Eternal One; [indeed I ask of You] [the Garden, and I seek refuge with You from the Fire]. [So the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said to his Companions, Do you know with what he has supplicated? They said, “Allaah and His Messenger know best.” He said, By Him in Whose Hand is my soul,] he has supplicated Allaah with His Mighty (in one narration: Mightiest) name274, with which if He is supplicated, He answers, and with which if He is asked, He gives.275

  1. One of the last things he would say between the tashahhud and the tasleem would be:

O Allaah! Forgive me what I have done in the past, and what I will do in the future, and what I have concealed, and what I have done openly, and what I have exceeded in, whatever You know about more know than I. You are the Bringer-Forward, and You are the Delayer, there is no (true) god except You.276

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)The Tasleem (Salutation of Peace)

The Tasleem (Salutation of Peace)

Next, “he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would salute to his right:

Peace and Allaah’s Mercy be on you [such that the whiteness of his right cheek was visible,], and on his left:

Peace and Allaah’s Mercy be on you [such that the whiteness of his left cheek was visible].”277

Sometimes, he would add to the greeting on the right:

… and His blessings (be on you).278

“When he said:

Peace and Allaah’s Mercy be on you to his right, he would sometimes shorten the greeting on his left to:

Peace be on you.279

Sometimes, “he would salute once only, [

Peace be on you] [in front of his face, turning to his right side a bit,] [or a little].”280

“They used to gesture with their hands when saluting to the right and left; when the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saw them, he said, ‘What is the matter with you, gesturing with your hands as if they are the tails of wild horses?! When one of you salutes, he should look towards his companion and not indicate with his hand.’ [So when they prayed with him, they did not gesture.] (In one narration: It is enough for each of you to place his hand on his thigh, and then salute his brothers who are on his right and left).281

The Obligation of the Tasleem

He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to say, … it (the prayer) is exited by the tasleem.282

This is the last of what has been possible to compile regarding the description of the Prophet’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) from the takbeer to the tasleem: I hope that Allaah will make it sincerely for His Face, Full of Honour, and a guide to the Sunnah of His kind and merciful Prophet.

Glorified be Allaah, and Praised. Glorified be You, O Allaah, and Praised. I bear witness that there is no true god except You. I seek forgiveness from You and repent to You.

O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, and send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as You sent prayers on Ibraaheem and the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.283

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Addendum

Addendum

All that has been mentioned of the description of the Prophet’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) applies equally to men and women, for there is nothing in the Sunnah to necessitate the exception of women from any of these descriptions; in fact, the generality of his statement (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), “Pray as you have seen me praying“, includes women.

This is the view of Ibraaheem an-Nakh’i, who said, “A woman’s actions in the prayer are the same as a man’s” – transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/75/2), with a saheeh sanad from him.

Also, Bukhaari reported in at-Taareekh as-Sagheer (p. 95) with a saheeh sanad from Umm ad-Dardaa’, “that she used to sit in her prayer just as a man sits, and she was a woman of understanding.”

The hadeeth about the indimaam (tucking up) of a woman in prostration, and that she is in that regard not like a man, is mursal and not authentic. Abu Daawood transmitted it in al- Maraaseel on the authority of Yazeed ibn Abi Habeeb.

As for what Imaam Ahmad has reported, as in his son ‘Abdullaah’s Masaa’il, from Ibn ‘Umar, that he used to instruct his wives to sit cross-legged in prayer, its sanad is not authentic, for it contains ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar al-‘Amri, who is a da’eef (weak) narrator.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Appendix 1 

Appendix 1

The Weakness of the Ahaadeeth endorsing

ikhtilaaf (disagreement, differing)

from: Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah wa’l-Mawdoo`ah (58-62) by Shaykh al-Albaani

1) “The disagreement among my Ummah is a mercy.”

a) Laa Asla Lahu (Baseless). The muhadditheen have tried to find an isnaad for it but have not found one, to the extent that Suyooti said in his al-Jaami` as-Sagheer, “Perhaps it was collected in one of the books of the huffaadh which did not reach us”!

This suggestion is very far-fetched, since it would mean that some of the sayings of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) have been lost to the ummah forever, something which is not permissible for a Muslim to believe.

Manaawi quoted Subki as saying, “It (i.e. the saying) is not known to the muhadditheen and I cannot find any isnaad for it, whether saheeh, da`eef or mawdoo`”, and this was endorsed by Shaykh Zakareeyyah al-Ansaari in his notes on Tafseer al-Baidaawi [92/2].

Further, the meaning of this hadeeth is also incorrect as shown by the verifying scholars, hence Ibn Hazm says in al-Ihkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam [5/64] after indicating that it is not a hadeeth,

“This is one of the most incorrect sayings possible, since if ikhtilaaf were a mercy, then agreement would be a punishment, something which no Muslim would say, because there can only be agreement or disagreement, and there can only be mercy or punishment.”

More of Ibn Hazm’s words are quoted below.

 

b) It contradicts the Qur’aan, which has condemned ikhtilaaf in many places.

2) “My Companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be rightly-guided.”

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Related by Ibn `Abdul-Barr in Jaami` Bayaan al-`Ilm [2/91] & Ibn Hazm in al-Ihkaam [6/82] via the route:

Sallaam ibn Sulaim, who said: al-Haarith ibn Ghisseen narrated to us from al-A`mash from Abu Sufyaan from Jaabir from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).

Ibn `Abdul-Barr said, “Proof cannot be established with this isnaad because al-Haarith ibn Ghisseen is majhool (unknown)”; Ibn Hazm said, “This is a fallen narration. Abu Sufyaan is weak; al-Haarith ibn Ghisseen is Abu Wahb ath-Thaqafee; Sallaam ibn Sulaimaan narrated fabricated ahaadeeth – this is one of them without a doubt.”

To judge this hadeeth on Sallaam ibn Sulaim – also known as Sallaam ibn Sulaimaan – is better, for he is agreed to be da`eef; in fact, Ibn Khiraash said about him, “An utter liar” and Ibn Hibbaan said, “He narrated fabricated ahaadeeth.”

As for Abu Sufyaan, he is not weak as Ibn Hazm said, but rather he is reliable as Ibn Hajar has said in at-Taqreeb, and Muslim narrates from him in his Saheeh.

Al-Haarith ibn Ghisseen is unknown as Ibn Hazm said, as did Ibn `Abdul Barr, even though Ibn Hibbaan does mention him in ath-Thiqaat (The Reliable Narrators)

Hence, Ahmad said, “This hadeeth is not authentic”, as quoted in al-Muntakhab [10/199/2] of Ibn Qudaamah.

As for the saying of Sha`raani in al-Meezaan [1/28], “This hadeeth, although debatable in the eyes of the muhadditheen, is nevertheless authentic in the eyes of the people of Kashf”, it is completely false and whimsical, and is not to be given any significance! This is because authenticating ahaadeeth by way of Kashf (“unveiling”, while in a state of trance) is a wicked innovation of the Sufis, and depending upon it leads to the authentication of false, baseless ahaadeeth such as this one. This is because, even at the best of times, Kashf is like opinion, which is sometimes correct and sometimes wrong – and that is if no personal desires enter into it! We ask Allaah to save us from it and from everything He is not pleased with.

Similar narrations to the above are as follows:

2.1) “The example of my Companions is that of the stars: he who follows any of them will be rightly-guided.

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Related by Qudaa`i (109/2) via:

Ja`far ibn `Abdul Waahid, who said: Wahb ibn Jareer ibn Haazim informed us from his father from al-A`mash from Abu Salih from Abu Hurairah from The Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).

One of the muhadditheen, either Ibn al-Muhibb or Dhahabi, wrote in the margin, “This hadeeth is not at all authentic”, i.e. it is fabricated: the flaw in it is Ja`far here, about whom Daaraqutni said, “He used to fabricate ahaadeeth”; Abu Zur`ah said, “He narrated baseless ahaadeeth”; Dhahabi gave some hadeeth because of which he disparaged him, among them being this one, and then said, “This is one of his calamities!”

2.2) “Whatever you are given from the Book of Allaah is to be acted upon; there is no excuse for anyone to leave it. If it is not in the Book of Allaah, then (act upon) a previous example (sunnah) of mine. If there is no previous example (sunnah) of mine, then (act upon) what my Companions say: verily, my Companions are of the station of the stars in the sky, so whichever of them you take, you will be guided, and the disagreement of my Companions is a mercy for you.”

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Collected by Khateeb in al-Kifaayah fi `Ilm ar-Riwaayah [p.48] and also by Abul-`Abbaas al-Asamm in the his Hadeeth (no. 142), & Ibn ‘Asaakir [7/315/2] by way of:

Sulaimaan ibn Abi Kareemah from Juwaibir from ad-Dahhaak from Ibn `Abbaas from The Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).

This isnaad is da`eef jiddan (very weak).

About Sulaimaan ibn Abi Kareemah, Ibn Abi Haatim [2/1/138] reported from his father about him, “He is weak in hadeeth.”

Juwaibir is Ibn Sa`eed al-Azadee, and is matrook (abandoned) as Daaraqutnee, Nasaa`i and others have said, and Ibn al-Madeeni declared him to be very weak.

Dahhaak is Ibn Muzaahim al-Hilaalee, and he did not meet Ibn `Abbaas.

`Iraaqi quoted the last part of the hadeeth in his Takhreej of Ghazaali’s Ihyaa’ `Uloom ad-Deen [1/25] and then said, “Its isnaad is da`eef.”

The isnaad is actually very weak due to what we have mentioned about Juwaibir, as Sakhaawi said in al-Maqaasid . In meaning, however, the hadeeth is fabricated, as is clear from what has preceeded and what will follow.

Suyooti quoted the hadeeth in its entirety at the begining of his treatise Jazeel al-Mawaahib fi Ikhtilaaf al-Madhaahib from the narration of Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal, and Dailami related it from this route, as occurs in al-Mawdoo`aat of `Ali al-Qaari [p.19]. Once you know this, then the saying of Suyooti in his aforementioned treatise is very strange: “… and this hadeeth contains several points to note; among them his (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) informing of the disagreements between the madhaahib in non-fundamental matters, and that is one of his miracles, since it is information about the Unseen; also, his being pleased with that and approving of it, since he described it as a mercy, and that the burdened person may choose whichever of them he wishes.”

It could be said to him: first establish the throne, and then sit. What he has mentioned about the choice is false: it is not possible for the Muslim to cling to it and act upon its generality, since it leads to breaking away from the restrictions of the Sharee`ah, as is not hard to see. See also the discussion under 2.4 below.

2.3) “I asked my Lord about that which my Companions would disagri about after me, so Allaah inspired me: O Muhammad! Your Companions are to Me of the station of the stars in the sky – some are brighter than others; so whoever takes from any of them in those matters where they have differed, then to Me, he is upon guidance.”

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Reported by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanah [4/11/2], Khateeb, Nizam al-Malik in al-Amaali [13/2], Diyaa’ in al-Muntaqaa `an Masmoo`aatihi bimaroo [116/2] & Ibn `Asaakir [6/303/1] by way of:

Nu`aim ibn Hammaad, who said: `Abdur-Raheem ibn Zaid narrated to us from his father from Sa`eed ibn al-Musayyib from `Umar ibn al-Khattaab from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).

This isnaad is mawdoo`.

Nu`aim ibn Hammaad is weak: Ibn Hajar said, “He makes many mistakes.”

About `Abdur-Raheem ibn Zaid al-`Ammee, al-Bukhaari said, “He was abandoned”; Abu Haatim said, “His ahaadeeth are abandoned: he is unacceptable in hadeeth – he used to undermine his father by narrating disasters from him”; Ibn Ma`een said, “He was an utter, filthy liar.”

About his father, Zaid al-`Ammi ibn al-Hawaaree, Ibn Sa`d said, “He was weak in hadeeth.”

Suyooti recorded this hadeeth in al-Jaami` as-Sagheer through the narration of Sijizzi in al-Ibaanah and Ibn `Asaakir from `Umar; Manaawi said in his commentary on al-Jaami` as-Sagheer :

Ibn al-Jawzi said in his al-`Ilal, “This is not authentic. Nu`aim has been disparaged; Ibn Ma`een has described `Abdur-Raheem as an utter liar; it says in al-Meezaan: This hadeeth is false.”

2.4) “Verily, my Companions are like the stars: so if you accept any of their sayings, you will be guided.”

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Ibn `Abdul-Barr reports it in mu`allaq (suspended, i.e. an incomplete chain of narrators at the collector’s end) form and Ibn Hazm reports it from him; the complete chain was provided by `Abd ibn Humaid in al-Muntakhab min al-Musnad (86/1):

Ahmad ibn Yoonus informed me: Abu Shihaab al-Hannaat narrated to us, from Hamzah al-Jazree, from Naafee`, from Ibn `Umar from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).

Also, Ibn Battah narrated it in al-Ibaanah [4/11/2] by another chain from Abu Shihaab.

Ibn `Abdul-Barr said, “This isnaad is not authentic; no one acceptable as proof has reported it from Naafee`.”

This Hamzah is Ibn Abi Hamzah; Daaraqutni said about him, “Matrook (abandoned)”; Ibn `Adi said, “His narrations are mostly fabricated”; Ibn Hibbaan said, “He would be alone in narrating things which are fabricated from reliable narrators, to such an extent that it is as if he did so deliberately – it is not permissible to narrate from him”; Dhahabi quoted some of his fabricated ahaadeeth in al-Meezaan, this being one of them.

Ibn Hazm said in al-Ihkaam (6/83), after declaring that this hadeeth (no. 2, with all its versions) is undoubtedly a lie since it also contradicts many aayaat of the Qur’aan, e.g. Najm (53:3-4), Nisaa’ (4:82), Anfaal (8:46), the following:

“… therefore, it is absurd that the Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) would command us to follow every view expressed by the Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them all, for there were among them those who permitted something while others prohibited it: if the above were the case, trading in intoxicants would be permissible if one followed Samurah ibn Jundub; it would be permissible for someone fasting to eat snow if one followed Abu Talhah, but prohibited by following others beside him; to not take a bath due to incomplete intercourse would be obligatory if one followed `Ali, `Uthmaan, Talhah, Abu Ayyoob and Ubayy ibn Ka`b, but prohibited if one followed `Aa’ishah and Ibn `Umar; all these examples have been related to us with authentic chains of narration.”

He then went on to explain at length some opinions expressed by Companions in which they were wrong about the Sunnah, both during the lifetime of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and after his death. He then said (6/86),

“So how can it be allowable to blindly follow the opinions of people who make mistakes as well as get it right?!”

Before that, he had explained, under the heading Differing Condemned (5/64), the error of those who say, “Disagreement is a mercy”, using as evidence the hadeeth, “My Companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be rightly-guided”, by clarifying that the hadeeth is a lie for several reasons:

(i) it is not authentic with regard to its chain of narration;

(ii) further, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) could not have commanded us to follow something which he himself had declared erroneous at times; e.g. he pointed out Abu Bakr’s mistake in interpreting a dream, `Umar’s error in another interpretation, and Abus-Sanaabil’s going wrong in a verdict he gave; hence, it is not possible for him to order us to follow someone mistaken;

(iii) the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) never spoke falsehood; his words were always truth: the comparison with the stars is clearly flawed, since for example, if someone intends to travel a certain route directed by the stars in the constellation of Capricorn, but instead follows the stars in Cancer, he will not be correctly-guided, but will stray far away from the correct path and err tremendously; therefore, it is obviously false to say that following any star will guide one correctly.

Ibn al-Mulaqqin gave a summarised version of Ibn Hazm’s words in his al-Khulaasah [2/175], endorsed it and ended his discussion of the hadeeth saying: Ibn Hazm said,”This is an invented, fabricated, false narration, not correct at all.”

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Appendix 2

Appendix 2

The authentic hadeeth: “You are right in some of it and wrong in some of it.”

from: Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Book of Dreams, English translation of the meanings by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan

Narrated Ibn `Abbaas (Allaah be pleased with him):

A man came to Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and said, “I saw in a dream, a cloud having shade. Butter and honey were dropping from it and I saw the people gathering it in their hands, some gathering much and some little. And behold, there was a rope extending from the earth to the sky, and I saw that you held it and went up; then, another man held it and went up and (after that) another (third) man held it and went up, and then another (fourth) man held it, but it broke and then got connected again.” Abu Bakr said, “O Allaah’s Messenger! Let my father be sacrificed for you! By Allaah, allow me to interpret this dream.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) said to him, Interpret it. Abu Bakr said, “The cloud with shade symbolises Islaam, and the butter and the honey dropping from it symbolises the Qur’aan, it’s sweetness and some people learning much of the Qur’aan while some a little. The rope which is extended from the sky to the earth is the Truth which you (the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) are following. You follow it and Allaah will raise you high with it, and then another person will follow it and will rise up with it and then another man will follow it but it will break and then it will be connected for him and he will rise up with it. O Allaah’s Messenger! Let my father be sacrificed for you! Am I right or wrong?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) replied, You are right in some of it and wrong in some of it. Abu Bakr said, “O Allaah’s Prophet! By Allaah, you must tell me in what I was wrong.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) said, Do not swear.

(Related by Bukhaari and Muslim, and also by Abu Daawood, Tirmidhi, Daarimi, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Abi Shaibah and Ahmad.)

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Appendix 3 

Appendix 3

“The one who prayed badly” (radi Allaahu `anhu)

In Hadeeth and Fiqh literature, this term refers to the Companion mentioned in the following hadeeth of Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Book of Prayer, English translation by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan); many other narrations of this incident are found in the various collections of hadeeth, and provide an important source of instructions from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) regarding the correct way to pray:

Narrated Abu Hurairah (radi Allaahu `anhu):

The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) entered the mosque and a person followed him. The man prayed and then went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and greeted him; he returned the greeting and said (to him), Go back and pray, for you have not prayed. The man went back and prayed in the same way as before, and then returned and greeted the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), who said, Go back and pray, for you have not prayed, three times. The man said, “By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I cannot do so any better than this, so please teach me.” He said, When you stand for the Prayer, say takbeer and then recite what is easy for you from the Qur’aan (from what you know by heart); then bow until you feel at ease in rukoo`; then raise your head and stand up straight, then prostrate until you feel at ease in sajdah; then sit with calmness until you feel at ease, and do likewise in all your prayers.

[further narrations of this hadeeth found in the other works of Hadeeth such as Sunan Abi Daawood, etc. contain further details.]

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Appendix 4

Appendix 4

The weakness of the hadeeth about placing the hands below the navel.

from Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (353) & Ahkaam al-Janaa’iz ( p. 118), by Shaykh al-Albaani

Abu Daawood (756), Daaraqutni (107), Baihaqi (2/310), Ahmad in his son `Abdullaah’s Masaa’il (62/2) and also in Zawaa’id al-Musnad (1/110), and Ibn Abi Shaiba (1/156/1) transmitted:

`an `Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Ishaaq `an Ziyaad ibn Zaid as-Siwaa’i `an Abu Juhaifah `an `Ali (radi Allaahu `anhu), who said, “It is from the Sunnah during the prayer to place one palm on the other, below the navel.”

This is a da`eef (weak) sanad due to `Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Ishaaq (al-Waasiti al-Koofi), who is weak (see below). On top of that, it has idtiraab (shakiness) in it, for he has narrated it:

  1. once `an Ziyad `an Abu Juhaifa `an `Ali (as above);
  2. once `an Nu`man ibn Sa`d`an `Ali (transmitted by Daaraqutni and Baihaqi); and
  3. once `an Siyaas Abul Hakam `an Abu Waa’il, who said, “Abu Hurairah said: It is from the Sunnah …” (transmitted by Abu Dawood [758] and Daaraqutni).

The Weakness of `Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Ishaaq al-Koofi in the eyes of the Imaams of Hadeeth

  1. Abu Daawood said, “I heard Ahmad ibn Hanbal declaring `Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Ishaaq al-Koofi da`eef (weak).” [This is why Imaam Ahmad did not accept this hadeeth of his, for his son `Abdullaah said, “I saw that when praying, my father placed his hands, one on the other, above the navel.”]
  2. Nawawi said in Majmoo` (3/313), and also in Sharh Saheeh Muslim and elsewhere, “They (the scholars of hadeeth) agree in declaring this hadeeth weak, because it is a narration of `Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Ishaaq al-Waasiti, who is a da`eef (weak) narrator, as agreed upon by the Imaams of Jarh and Ta`deel (Authentication and Disparagement of reporters).”
  3. Zayla`i said in Nasb ar-Raayah (1/314), “Baihaqi said in al-Ma`rifah: `Its isnaad is not firm, for it is a unique narration of `Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Ishaaq al-Waasiti, who is matrook (abandoned)’.”
  4. Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari (2/186), “It is a weak hadeeth.”

What further points to its weakness is that contrary to it has been narrated on the authority of `Ali with a better isnaad: the hadeeth of Ibn Jareer al-Dabbi `an his father, who said, “I saw `Ali (radi Allaahu `anhu) holding his left arm with his right on the wrist, above the navel” – this isnaad is a candidate for the rank of hasan; Baihaqi (1/301) firmly designated it to be hasan, and Bukhaari (1/301) designated it with certainty while giving it in an abridged, ta`leeq form.

What is authentic from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) with respect to the position of the hands is that they should be on the chest; there are many ahaadeeth about this, among them is one on the authority of Taawoos, who said, “The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) used to place his right arm on his left arm, and clasp them firmly on his chest during prayer” – transmitted by Abu Daawood (759) with a saheeh isnaad. Although this is mursal, it is enough as proof for all scholars, with all their various opinions regarding the Mursal Hadeeth, since it is saheeh as a mursal isnaad and has also been related as mawsool in many narrations; hence, it is valid as proof for all. Some of the supporting narrations are as follows:

  1. from Waa’il ibn Hujr: “That he saw the Prophet – sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam – put his right hand upon his left and place them upon his chest.” Reported by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (Nasb ar-Raayah, 1/314) and reported by Baihaqi in his Sunan (2/30) with two chains of narration which support each other.
  2. from Qabeesah ibn Hulb, from his father who said:
    “I saw the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), leave [after completing the Prayer] from his right and his left, and I saw him place this upon his chest – Yahyaa (Ibn Sa’eed) described the right (hand) upon the left above the joint.”
    Reported by Ahmad (5/226) with a chain of narrators who are of the standard set by Muslim except for Qabeesah, but he is declared reliable by ‘Ijli & Ibn Hibbaan; however, no one narrates from him except Simaak ibn Harb about whom Ibn al-Madeeni and Nasaa’i say: “Unknown” and Ibn Hajar says in Taqreeb: “He is `Maqbool’ [i.e. acceptable only if supported].” The hadeeth of one such as him are hasan as supporting narrations, and therefore Tirmidhi said after quoting the part of this hadeeth concerning taking the left hand with the right, “It is a hasan hadeeth.”

So these are three ahaadeeth which show that the Sunnah is to place the hands on the chest, and one who comes across them will not doubt that together they are sufficient to prove this.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Appendix 5

Appendix 5

The Weakness of the Hadeeth condemning Recitation behind the Imaam

from: Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah wal-Mawdoo`ah (568-570) by Shaykh al-Albaani

 

1-“He who recites behind the imaam, his mouth is filled with fire.”

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Ibn Taahir quoted it in Tadhkirah al-Mawdoo`aat (p.93), and said, “The isnaad contains Ma’moon ibn Ahmad al-Harawi, an utter liar who used to narrate fabrications.” More of his description is given in hadeeth 2 below. Ibn Hibbaan mentioned this hadeeth under his name in ad-Du`afaa (The Weak Narrators) and Dhahabi regarded it as one of his calamities!

Some Hanafis have been deceived by this hadeeth, arguing on its basis that any recitation behind the imaam is totally haraam! Abul Hasanaat al-Luknawi said in at-Ta`leeq al-Mumajjid `alaa Muwatta` Muhammad (p. 99), “It was mentioned by the author of Nihaayah and by others as marfoo` with the wording, `_there is a burning coal in his mouth’, and it is totally baseless.”

He had said before that, “In no saheeh marfoo` hadeeth is there a forbiddance of reciting al-Faatihah behind the imaam; all that they quote as marfoo` regarding this is either baseless or not authentic”, and had then mentioned this hadeeth with both wordings as an example.

The people of knowledge, both past and present, have differed regarding recitation behind the imaam, taking one of three views:

  1. That recitation in loud and quiet prayers is obligatory.
  2. That silence in loud and quiet prayers is obligatory.
  3. That there be recitation in quiet, but not in loud, prayers.

This last view is the most balanced and closest to the truth, for in it, all the evidences can be accommodated such that none of them is rejected totally. It is the view of Maalik and Ahmad, and has also been prefered after analysis by some Hanafis, including Abul Hasanaat al-Luknawi in his aforementioned book.

Another example of Ma’moon al-Harawi’s inventions is the following:

2- “He who raises his hands during the prayer, there is no prayer for him.”

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Ibn Taahir quoted it in Tadhkirah al-Mawdoo`aat (p. 87), and said, “The isnaad contains Ma’moon ibn Ahmad al-Harawi, an utter liar who used to fabricate ahadeeth.”

Dhahabi said about him, “He brought calamities and disgraceful reports. He invented ahaadeeth, this being one of them, and related them apparently on the authority of reliable narrators.”

It is clear to me from the ahaadeeth which Ma’moon al-Harawi has invented that he is a bigoted zealot of the Hanafi Madhhab, for all the ahaadeeth mentioned under his descriptions (in books of narrators) revolve around supporting Imaam Abu Haneefah and insulting Imaam Shaafi`i; amongst them is this one: a clear insult to the Shaafi`i view, which approves the raising of the hands on going down into rukoo` and rising from it (which is the truth without doubt), while obviously backing the Hanafi view which says that this is makrooh. This disgusting man was not even satisfied with the position of his Madhhab that raising the hands was makrooh: he even went to the extent of inventing this hadeeth, in order to propagate amongst the people that raising the hands actually invalidates the prayer!

Perhaps he also intended to support Makhool’s narration from Abu Haneefah that he said, “He who raises his hands during prayer, his prayer is ruined”, a narration which deceived Ameer Kaatib al-Itqaani, who compiled a treatise on the basis of it to argue the invalidation of the prayer by the raising of the hands! Similarly deceived was the one who trod his path and ruled that it was not permissible for Hanafis to pray behind Shaafi`is because the latter raise their hands! While all along, this narration from Abu Haneefah is utterly false, as `Allaamah Abul Hasanaat al-Luknawi has verified in al-Fawa`id al-Bahiyyah fi Taraajum al-Hanafeeyyah (pp. 116, 216-7).

Shaikh `Ali al-Qaari quoted this hadeeth in al-Mawdoo`at and then said (p. 81), “This hadeeth was fabricated by Muhammad b. `Ukaashah al-Kirmaani, may Allaah disgrace him.” Later (p. 129), he quoted Ibn al-Qayyim as saying, “It is fabricated.”

This is contrary to what has been established (above) that the fabricator was al-Harawi; if it is proved, than perhaps one of them stole it from the other!

We can see from all this what lack of heed to the Sunnah, and abandonment of verification of narrations from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and the Imaams, can do!

NOTE: About raising the hands on going into rukoo` and rising from it, many many ahadeeth have been narrated from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam): they are actually mutawaatir in the eyes of the scholars; in fact, raising the hands with every takbeer is proven on his authority in many ahadeeth; whereas not raising the hands is not authentically-related from him except once via `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood (radi Allaahu `anhu), but this is not suitable for putting into practice, for it is naaf (negatory). It is firmly established, in the eyes of the Hanafis and others, that the muthbit (affirmatory) takes precedence over the naaf (negatory); this is even when the affirmatory is on its own, let alone the case when it is a multitude of narrations, as in this issue! On the basis of this principle, and in the abscence of anything contrary, this renders it binding on them to adopt the raising of the hands, and not to stick zealously to the Madhhab after the establishment of proof. However, it is a pity that only a handful of the earlier or later ones have adopted it, so much so that not raising the hands has become a landmark for them!

Yet another of the inventions of this vile liar, this time a personal insult to Imaam Shaafi`i (Muhammad bin Idrees), is the following:

 

 

3- “There will be a man among my ummah known as Muhammad bin Idrees, who will be more harmful to my ummah than Iblees, and there will be a man among my ummah known as Abu Haneefah, who will be the lamp of my ummah.”

Mawdoo` (Fabricated). Ibn al-Jawzi quoted it in al-Mawdoo`aat(1/457) via:

Ma’moon ibn Ahmad as-Salmi, who said: Ahmad ibn `Abdullaah al-Juwaibaari narrated to us: `Abdullaah ibn Mi`daan al-Azadi informed us from Anas, as marfoo`;

and then said, “Fabricated; invented by Ma’moon or by Juwaibaari. Haakim mentioned in Madhkal that it was said to Ma’moon, `Do you not look to Shaafi`i and his followers?’ So he said, `Ahmad ibn `Abdullaah al-Juwaibaari narrated to us …’ etc., so it becomes evident from this that he is the fabricator of it.”

The following addition appears in Lisaan: “Haakim then said, `Anyone whom Allaah has granted the least amount of intelligence would testify that a hadeeth such as this is a fabrication attributed to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam)’.”

The hadeeth does have other routes of narration, but these depend on liars and unknown reporters. Therefore, it is extremely bizarre that `Allaamah `Ayni should incline towards strengthening the hadeeth with those other routes, and that Shaykh Kawthari should support him! However, it is no surprise from the latter, for he was notorious for being submerged in zealousy for Imaam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah), even if it entailed insulting other Imaams; but it is very surprising from `Ayni, for he was generally known not to go to such extremes. The opinion of these two has been refuted, with analysis of the other routes of narration referred to, in a unique way in `Allaamah Yamaanee’s valuable book, at-Tankeel bi maa fi Ta’neeb al-Kawthari min al-Abaateel (1/20, 446-9).

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Appendix 6

Appendix 6

Analysis of the Ahaadeeth regarding the saying of `aameen’ by the Imaam and the Congregation

from: Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah (951-2) by Shaykh al-Albaani

 

1- “When he said aameen, those behind him would say aameen, such that there was a lot of noise in the mosque.”

There is no basis for the hadeeth with this wording as far as we know. Ibn Hajr said in Talkhees al-Habeer (p. 90), “I do not find it with this wording, but its meaning is related by Ibn Maajah in the hadeeth of Bishr ibn Raafi`”:

2- “When he recited `Not of those who received Your anger, nor of those who go astray’, he said `aameen’, such that those close to him in the first row could hear [and the mosque trembled with it].”

Da`eef (Weak). Related by Ibn Maajah (1/281) & Abu Dawood without the addition (1/148), both via:

Bishr ibn Raafi` from Abu `Abdullaah, cousin of Abu Hurairah, from Abu Hurairah from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).

Ibn Hajar said in Talkhees (p. 90), “Bishr ibn Raafi` is weak; the cousin of Abu Hurairah has been said to be unknown, but Ibn Hibbaan has declared him reliable.”

Boosayri said in Zawaa’id (56/1), “This is a weak isnaad; Abu `Abdullaah’s condition is not known; Bishr was declared weak by Ahmad, and Ibn Hibbaan said, ‘He narrated fabrications’.”

Hadeeth 2 only gives a part of the meaning of no. 1, i.e. the saying of aameen by the imaam alone. As for the aameen of those behind, this could be the reason for the phrase “the mosque trembled with it (the sound)”, but the hadeeth literally implies that the aameen of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) was the reason for this.

3- “When he finished reciting the Mother of the Qur’aan, he raised his voice and said `aameen’.”

Da`eef (Weak). Related by Daaraqutni, Haakim & Baihaqi.

All the above sources contain Ishaaq ibn Ibraaheem ibn al-`Alaa’ az-Zubaidi, also known as Ibn Zibreeq, who is weak: Abu Haatim said, “An old man, no harm in him”; Ibn Ma`een described him in good terms; Nasaa’i said, “Not reliable”; Muhammad ibn `Awf said, “I have no doubt that Ishaaq ibn Zibreeq used to lie.” However, this wording is correct in meaning, for it has a supporting hadeeth of Waa’il ibn Hajar with a saheeh sanad.

(Since the text of this hadeeth does not imply the aameen of the congregation at all, it is incorrect to regard it as another version of hadeeth no. 2, as Shawkaani did.)

The only support for no. 1 is what Shaafi`i related in his Musnad (1/76) via Muslim ibn Khaalid from Ibn Juraij from `Ataa’, who said:

4- “I used to hear the imaams: Ibn az-Zubair and others after him would say ‘aameen’, and those behind would say `aameen’, until the mosque echoed.”

This has two defects:

(i) The weakness of Muslim ibn Khaalid az-Zanji; Ibn Hajar said, “He was truthful, but made many errors.”

(ii) The `an`anah of Ibn Juraij, who was a mudallis; perhaps he actually took it from Khaalid ibn Abi Anoof, who narrated it from `Ataa’ as follows:

4.1- “I came across two hundred Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in this mosque (i.e. Masjid al-Haraam, Makkah): when the imaam had said `Nor of those who go astray’, they raised their voices in aameen (in one narration: I heard the thundering sound of their aameen).”

Related by Baihaqi (2/59) & Ibn Hibbaan in Thiqaat (2/74); the alternative narration is from the former.

This Khaalid was described by Ibn Abi Haatim (1/2/355-6), but he did not include any authentication or disparagement. Ibn Hibbaan included him among the reliable narrators, but Ibn Hibbaan is well-known to be far from rigorous in such cases, so I am not satisfied that this narration is authentic. This is because if Ibn Juraij indeed took it from him, this constitutes only one debatable route; if not, we do not know from whom Ibn Juraij took it. It seems that Imaam Shaafi`i himself was not satisfied of the authenticity of this narration, for his position is contrary to it: he says in al-Umm (1/95), “So when the imaam completes reciting the Mother of the Book, he says ‘aameen’, raising his voice so that those behind may follow him: when he says it, they say it to themselves, but I do not like them saying it aloud”; had the above narration from the Companions been authentic in Shaafi`i’s view, he would not have opposed their action.

Hence, the most correct opinion in this issue appears to be the madhhab of Shaafi`i: that the imaam, but not those following, should say `aameen’ loudly. Allaah knows best.

But then, I saw that Bukhaari mentioned the text (only) of the narration about Ibn az-Zubair in his Saheeh (i.e. in mu`allaq form), designating it with certainty. Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari (2/208), “The connecting isnaad has been provided by `Abd ar-Razzaaq from Ibn Juraij from `Ataa’. He (i.e. Ibn Juraij) said, `I said to him, “Did Ibn az-Zubair say aameen at the end of the Mother of the Qur’aan ?” He said, “Yes, and those behind him also said aameen, until the mosque echoed.” He then said, “Verily, aameen is a supplication”.'” This is found in the Musannaf of `Abd ar-Razzaaq (2640/2), and from this route, in Ibn Hazm’s al-Muhallaa (3/364).

In this narration, Ibn Juraij has clarified that he took the narration from `Ataa’ face-to-face, so we are assured of the absence of tadlees, and the narration of Ibn az-Zubair is established firmly. Similarly is proven from Abu Hurairah; Abu Raafi` said:

5- “Abu Hurairah used to call to prayer for Marwaan ibn al-Hakam, stipulating that the latter would not get to `Nor of those who go astray’ unless he knew that Abu Hurairah had entered the row. So when Marwaan said `Nor of those who go astray’, Abu Hurairah would say `aameen’, prolonging it. He also said, `When the aameen of those on the earth coincides with the aameen of those in the heaven, they are forgiven’.”

Related by Baihaqi (2/59); its isnaad is saheeh.

Hence, since nothing is established from any of the Companions other than Abu Hurairah and Ibn az-Zubair contrary to their aameen aloud, this must be accepted. Presently, I know of no narration opposing this. Allaah knows best.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Appendix 7

The Two Rak`ahs After Witr

from: Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (1993) by Shaykh al-Albaani

1) The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) said, Make the last of your prayer at night odd (witr).
Related by Bukhaari & Muslim.

2) Abu Salamah asked `A’ishah about the prayer of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam). She said, “He performed thirteen rak`ahs (in the night prayer): he observed eight rak`ahs and would then observe Witr and then observe two rak`ahs sitting, and when he wanted to bow, he stood up and then bowed down, and then observed two rak`ahs in between the adhaan and iqaamah of the Dawn Prayer.”
Related by Muslim.

3) Thawbaan said, “We were on a journey with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), when he said, Truly, this journey is an exertion and a burden, so when each of you has prayed Witr, he should perform two rak`ahs; if he wakes up (then well and good), otherwise these two will be (the night prayer) for him.
Related by Daarimi (1/374), Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (2/159/1103) & Ibn Hibbaan (683) from various routes going back to: Ibn Wahb, who said: Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih narrated to me from Shuraih ibn `Ubaid from `Abd ar-Rahmaan ibn Jubair ibn Nufair from his father from Thawbaan, who said …

Ibn Wahb has been backed up by `Abdullaah ibn Saalih, who said: Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih narrated to us … etc., related by Daaraqutni (p. 177) & Tabaraani in al-Mu`jam al-Kabeer (1410). `Abdullaah ibn Saalih is a shaykh of Bukhaari, so he can be used as evidence in supporting others’ narrations.

This hadeeth is used as evidence by Imaam Ibn Khuzaimah, “that prayer after Witr is allowed to whoever wants to pray after it, and that the two rak`ahs which the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) used to pray after Witr were not exclusively for him over his Ummah, for he has ordered us to pray two rak`ahs after Witr, an order of recommendation and preference, not one of obligation and compulsion.”

Hence, it is clear to us from this hadeeth (because of his general order to his Ummah) that the two rak`ahs after Witr were not exclusively for him; it seems that the purpose of his command to make the last prayer at night odd was to prevent neglect of the one odd rak`ah, so this objective is not contradicted by the two rak`ahs after it, as established in his practice and his command. Allaah knows best.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Appendix 8

Appendix 8

The Weakness of the Ahaadeeth Mentioning Wiping the Face with the Hands After Du`aa’ (Supplication)

From Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (2/178-182) by Shaykh al-Albaani

1) “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), when he raised his hands in du`aa’, he would not put them down until he had wiped his face with them.”

Da`eef (Weak). Transmitted by Tirmidhi (2/244) & Ibn `Asaakir (7/12/2) via: Hammaad ibn `Isa al-Juhani from Hanzalah ibn Abi Sufyaan al-Jamhi from Saalim ibn `Abdullaah from his father from `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, who said: …

Tirmidhi said after it, “This is a saheeh ghareeb hadeeth. We only know it as a hadeeth of Hammaad ibn `Esa, for he is alone in reporting it; he has few ahaadeeth, but the people have reported from him.”

However, this reporter is weak, as in Taqreeb of Ibn Hajr, who says about him in Tahdheeb:

Ibn Ma`een said, “A good shaikh”1Abu Haatim said, “Weak in Hadeeth”; Abu Daawood said, “Weak, he reports munkar ahaadeeth”; Haakim and Naqqaash said, “He reports fabricated ahaadeeth from Ibn Juraij and Ja`far as-Saadiq.” He is declared to be weak by Daaraqutni. Ibn Hibbaan said, “He reports things which are the wrong way round on the authority of Ibn Juraij and `Abdul `Azeez ibn `Umar ibn `Abdul `Azeez, such that it seems to those whose field this is that it is deliberate; it is not permissible to use him as proof.” Ibn Maakoolaa said, “They declare his ahaadeeth to be weak.”

Hence, the like of this reporter is very weak, so his ahaadeeth cannot be raised to the level of hasan, let alone saheeh!

A similar hadeeth is:

“When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) did du`aa’ and raised his hands, he would wipe his face with his hands.”

Da`eef (Weak). Abu Daawood (1492) from Ibn Lahee`ah from Hafs ibn Hishaam ibn `Utbah ibn Abi Waqqaas from Saa’ib ibn Yazeed from his father.

This is a weak sanad due to Hafs ibn Hishaam being unknown and the weakness of Ibn Lahee`ah (cf. Taqreeb at-Tahdheeb).

This hadeeth cannot be strengthened by the two routes of narration together due to the severity in weakness of the first one, which you have seen.

2) “When you call upon Allaah, then supplicate with the palms of your hands, and do not supplicate with their backs, and when you finish, wipe your face with them.”

Da`eef (Weak). Related by Ibn Maajah (1181, 3866), Ibn Nasr in Qiyaam al-Lail (p. 137), Tabaraani in Al-Mu`jam al-Kabeer (3/98/1) & Haakim (1/536), from Saalih ibn Hassaan from Muhammad ibn Ka`b from Ibn `Abbaas (radi Allaahu `anhu) as marfoo`.

This is a weak sanad due to Ibn Hassaan, who is munkar in Hadeeth, as Bukhaari said; Nasaa’i said, “He is abandoned in Hadeeth”; Ibn Hibbaan said, “He used to have female singers and listen to music, and he used to narrate fabricated reports on the authority of trustworthy narrators”; Ibn Abi Haatim said in Kitaab al-`Ilal (2/351), “I asked my father (i.e. Abu Haatim al-Raazi) about this hadeeth, to which he said: `Munkar’.”

Ibn Hassaan has been backed up by `Eesaa ibn Maimoon, who also reported it from Muhammad ibn Ka`b, as related by Ibn Nasr. However, this does not alter anything, since Ibn Maimoon is similarly weak: Ibn Hibbaan said, “He reports ahaadeeth, all of which are fabricated”; Nasaa’i said, “Not reliable.”

This hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas is also related by Abu Daawood (1485), and from him Baihaqi (2/212), via: `Abdul Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Aiman from `Abdullaah ibn Ya`qoob ibn Ishaaq from someone who narrated to him from Muhammad ibn Ka`b, the wording being:

Do not cover the walls. He who looks into the letter of his brother without his permission, verily he looks into the Fire. Ask Allaah with the palms of your hands, and do not ask him with their backs, and when you finish, wipe your faces with them.

This is a weak sanad: `Abdul Malik is declared weak by Abu Daawood; it also contain the shaikh of `Abdullaah ibn Ya`qoob who is unnamed, and therefore unknown – it is possible that he may be Ibn Hassaan or Ibn Maimoon, both of whom are mentioned above.

The hadeeth is also transmitted by Haakim (4/270) via: Muhammad ibn Mu`aawiyah, who said that Masaadif ibn Ziyaad al-Madeeni narrated to him that he heard it from Muhammad ibn Ka`b al-Qurazi. Dhahabi followed this up by pointing out that Ibn Mu`aawiyah was declared to be a liar by Daaraqutni, so the hadeeth is falsified.

Abu Daawood said about this hadeeth, “This hadeeth has been narrated via more than one route on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ka`b; all of them are feeble.”

Raising the hands on doing Qunoot for a calamity is established from the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in his supplication against the polytheists who killed seventy reciters – transmitted by Imaam Ahmad (3/137) & Tabaraani in Al-Mu’jam as-Sagheer (p. 111) as the hadeeth of Anas with a saheeh sanad. Similar is proved from `Umar and others in the Qunoot of Witr Prayer. However, since wiping the face after Du`aa’ al-Qunoot is not quoted at all from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), nor from any of his Companions, it is an innovation without doubt.

As for wiping the face after du`aa’ outside of prayer, there are only these two ahaadeeth; it is not correct to say that they mutually strengthen each other to the rank of hasan, as Manaawi did, due to the severity of the weakness found in their routes of narration. This is why Imaam Nawawi said in Majmoo’, “It is not recommended”, endorsing Ibn `Abd as-Salaam, who said, “Only an ignorant person does it.”

The view that wiping the face after du`aa’ is not prescribed is strengthened by the fact that there are many authentic ahaadeeth about raising the hands in supplication, and in none of them is there a mention of wiping the face; this shows, Allaah Willing, that it is unacceptable and not prescribed.

If Ibn Ma`een speaks favourably about a narrator, whereas the rest of the scholars declare him to be weak, then the statement of Ibn Ma`een is disregarded, the reason being that he was known for his strictness and severity in criticism: weak narrators would be very careful not to reveal their weakness before him; he would therefore pass judgment accordingly. This explains why he is alone in authenticating the narrator.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Glossary

Glossary

(of terms as used in this book)

  • `an: In Hadeeth, “on the authority of”.
  • `Asr: the Afternoon Prayer.
  • aayah (pl. aayaat): “sign”, a verse of the Qur’aan.
  • Companion (Ar. Sahaabi): a Muslim who met the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).
  • da`eef: “weak”, inauthentic (narration).
  • Deen: the way of life prescribed by Allaah.
  • dhikr (pl. adhkaar): “remembrance”, words by which Allaah is remembered and supplicated on doing various actions, including in prayer.
  • Fajr: the Dawn Prayer.
  • faqeeh (pl. fuqahaa’): a scholar of fiqh, jurist.
  • fatwaa (pl. fataawaa): religious verdict.
  • fiqh: the understanding and application of Sharee`ah (divine law) from its sources.
  • hadeeth (pl. ahaadeeth): a saying narrated from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) (whether authentic or not), regarding his words, actions, or attributes.
  • hadeeth qudsi: a narration by the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) on behalf of Allaah.
  • Hajj: Pilgrimage to Makkah.
  • halaal: permitted under the Sharee`ah.
  • haraam: prohibited under the Sharee`ah.
  • hasan: “fine”, used for a hadeeth which is authentic but does not reach the higher category of saheeh.
  • hasan li dhaatihi: a narration which is hasan in itself.
  • hasan li ghairihi: a narration which is hasan due to other supporting narrations.
  • iftiraash: to sit muftarishan.
  • ijmaa`: “consensus”; a unified opinion of scholars regarding a certain issue.
  • ijtihaad: “exertion”; the process of arising at a reasoned decision by a scholar on an issue.
  • iq`aa’: “squatting”.
  • `Ishaa’: the Night Prayer.
  • isnaad: the chain of reporters for a narrated saying, linking the collector of the saying with the person quoted.
  • isti`aadhah: “seeking of refuge” (with Allaah from Shaytaan).
  • istighfaar: to seek forgiveness (from Allaah).
  • madhhab: “position (opinion)” of a scholar.
  • Madhhab: “school of thought”, the sum total of the legal rulings of the founder of that Madhhab, as well as those of his students and all scholars who adhered to his approach.
  • maqloob: “reversed”, used for the text of a hadeeth in which an expression has been changed to its opposite, or for an isnaad in which names of reporters have been interchanged.
  • Maghrib: the Sunset prayer.
  • makrooh: “disliked”; fiqh terminology denoting an action which is discouraged, and one is rewarded for abstaining from it.
  • marfoo`: “raised”; a narration attributed to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).
  • masaa’il (sing. mas’alah): “that which is asked about”; an issue in fiqh.
  • mawdoo`: fabricated, spurious, invented (narration).
  • mawqoof: “stopped”; a narration from a Companion.
  • mawsool: “connected”; a continuous isnaad.
  • mu`allaq: “suspended”; a narration in which its collector omits part of the isnaad to previous authorities.
  • mudallis: one who practises tadlees.
  • muftarishan: (sitting) on the left foot, which is spread along the ground, with the right foot upright.
  • mufti: one who gives fataawaa.
  • muhaddith (pl. muhadditheen): scholar of the science of Hadeeth.
  • mujtahid: one who is qualified to pass judgments using ijtihaad.
  • munkar: “rejected”; a narration which is inauthentic in itself and also contradicts other authentic ones.
  • muqallid: one who practises taqleed.
  • mursal: “loose”; a narration in which a Successor narrates from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) directly, i.e. omitting the Companion from whom he heard it.
  • mutawaatir: a hadeeth which is narrated by a very large number of reporters, such that it cannot be supposed that they all agreed on a lie.
  • qiyaas: Analogical deduction of Islaamic laws. New laws are deduced from old laws based on a similarity between their causes.
  • qunoot: “devotion”; a special supplication while standing in Prayer.
  • radi Allaahu `anhu/`anhaa/`anhum: “May Allaah be pleased with him/her/them”.
  • rahimahullaah: “May Allaah bestow His Mercy on him.”
  • rak`ah: one cycle of standing, bowing and prostrations during Prayer.
  • saheeh: “correct”; an authentic narration.
  • saheeh li dhaatihi: a narration which is saheeh in itself.
  • saheeh li ghairihi: a narration which is saheeh due to other supporting narrations.
  • Salaf: “previous”; the early Muslims, of the first three eras: the Companions, Successors, and their successors.
  • sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam: “May Allaah send blessings and peace on him”, used for the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).
  • sanad: same as isnaad.
  • shaadhdh: “unusual”; a narration which is authentic in itself but inconsistent with other authentic ones.
  • shaikh: teacher of a scholar or narrator of hadeeth.
  • Sharee`ah: The divine code of Law.
  • sharh: commentary on, or explanation of, a text other than the Qur’aan.
  • Successor (Ar. Taabi`i): a Muslim (other than a Companion) who met a Companion.
  • Sunnah: “Example, Practice”; the way of life of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), consisting of his words, actions and silent approvals. The Sunnah is contained in the various authentic ahaadeeth.
  • sunnah: an action of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).
  • surah: a chapter of the Qur’aan.
  • sutrah: “screen, covering”; an object ahead of the place of prostration, only beyond which may anyone pass.
  • tadlees: “concealment”; to mask the identity of one’s immediate authority in narration, e.g. by using a less well-known name, or by saying “on the authority of …” the next narrator along.
  • tafseer: explanation of the words and meanings of the Qur’aan.
  • tahajjud: voluntary, recommended prayer between the compulsory prayers of `Ishaa’ and Fajr.
  • tahleel: to declare that there is no true deity except Allaah.
  • tahmeed: “declare the praise of”, esp. to declare the Praise of Allaah.
  • ta`leeq: same as mu`allaq.
  • takbeer: “magnification”; to declare the Greatness of Allaah.
  • takhreej: to reference a hadeeth to its source and analyse its isnaads.
  • tarjamah: notes about a reporter of Hadeeth.
  • tasbeeh: to glorify Allaah, rejecting any imperfections attributed to Him.
  • tashahhud: from shahaadah (to witness); the sitting in Prayer, in which one bears witness that there is no true god except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His messenger.
  • tasleem: “to send peace on”; the Muslim salutation of peace.
  • taqleed: to follow someone’s opinion; to follow a Madhhab.
  • Ummah: “nation”; the Muslims as a group.
  • `Umrah: the lesser pilgrimage to Makkah.
  • Witr: “Odd”; the last prayer at night, consisting of an odd number of rak`ahs.
  • Zuhr: the post-noon prayer.

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS)Author’s Bibliography 

Previous Next Table of Contents

Author’s Bibliography

A) THE QUR’AAN

B) TAFSEER

2. Ibn Katheer (701-774 AH): Tafseer al-Qur’an al-`Azeem, Muhammad Mustafa publications, 1365.

C) THE SUNNAH

3. Maalik bin Anas (93-179): Al-Muwatta’, Daar Ihyaa’ Kutub al-`Arabiyyah, 1343.

4. Ibn al-Mubaarak, `Abdullaah (118-181): Az-Zuhd, ms.

5. Muhammad bin al-Hasan Shaibaani (131-189): Al-Muwatta’, al-Mustafaa’i, 1297.

6. Tayaalisi (124-204): Al-Musnad, Daa’irah al-Ma`aarif, Hyderabad Deccan, 1321.

7. `Abd ar-Razzaaq bin Humaam (126-211): Al-Amaali, ms.

8. Humaidi, `Abdullah bin az-Zubair (…-219): Musnad, ms.

9. Ibn Sa`d, Muhammad (168-230): At-Tabaqaat al-Kubraa, Europe.

10. Ibn Ma`een, Yahya (…-233): Taareekh ar-Rijaal wal-`Ilal, ms.

11. Ahmad bin Hanbal (164-241): Musnad, Al-Matba`ah al-Maymaniyyah, 1313; Matba`ah al-Ma`aarif, 1365.

12. Ibn Abi Shaibah, `Abdullah bin Muhammad Abu Bakr (…-235): Musannaf, ms.

13. Daarimi (181-255): Sunan, Matba`ah al-I`tidaal, Damascus, 1349.

14. Bukhaari (194-256): Al-Jaami` as-Saheeh, Al-Matba`ah al-Bahiyya al-Misriyyah, 1348. Printed with its commentary, Fath al-Baaree

15. ————: Al-Adab al-Mufrad, Matba`ah al-Khalili, India, 1306.

16. ————: Khalq Af`aal al-`Ibaad, Matba`ah al-Ansaar, India.

17. ————: At-Taareekh as-Sagheer, India.

18. ————: Juz’ al-Qiraa’ah (“Article on Recitation”), printed.

19. Abu Daawood (202-275): Sunan, Al-Matba`ah at-Taaziah, 1349.

20. Muslim (204-261): Saheeh, Muhammad Ali publications.

21. Ibn Maajah (209-273): Sunan, Al-Matba`ah at-Taaziah, 1349.

22. Tirmidhi (209-279): Sunan, ed. Ahmad Shaakir, Halab, 1356.

23. ————: Shamaa’il Muhammadiyyah, with its commentary by `Ali al-Qaari and `Abd ar-Ra’oof al-Manaawi, Al-Matba`ah al-Adabiyyah, Egypt, 1317.

24. Al-Haarith bin Abi Usaamah (176-282): Musnad – zawaa’iduh, ms.

25. Abu Ishaaq al-Harbi, Ibraaheem bin Ishaaq (198-285):Ghareeb al-Hadeeth (Difficult words in Hadeeth, ms.

26. Bazzaar, Abu Bakr Ahmad bin `Amr al-Basri (…-292): Musnad – zawaa’iduh, photocopy.

27. Muhammad bin Nasr (202-294): Qiyaam al-Layl, Matba`ah Rifaah `Aamm, Lahore, 1320.

28. Ibn Khuzaimah (223-311): Saheeh, Al-Maktab al-Islaami.

29. Nasaa’i (225-303): Sunan – Al-Mujtabaa, Al-Matba`ah al-Maymaniyyah.

30. ————: as-Sunan al-Kubraa, ms.

31. Al-Qaasim al-Sarqasti (255-302): Ghareeb al-Hadeeth or ad-Dalaa’il, ms.

32. Ibn al-Jaarood (…-307): Al-Muntaqaa, ms., Egypt.

33. Abu Ya`laa al-Mooseeli (…-307): Musnad, ms.

34. Rooyaani, Muhammad bin Haaroon (…-307): Musnad, ms.

35. Siraaj, Abul-`Abbaas Muhammad bin Ishaaq (216-313): Musnad, several vols. of it as ms. in the Zaahiriyyah Library, Damascus.

36. Abu `Awaanah (…-316): Saheeh, Daa’irah al-Ma`aarif, Hyderabad Deccan, 1326.

37. Ibn Abi Daawood, `Abdullaah bin Sulaimaan (230-316): Al-Masaahif, ms.

38. Tahaawi (239-321): Sharh Ma`aani al-Aathaar (Explanation of the meanings of narrations), Al-Mustafaa’i, India, 1300.

39. ————: Mushkil al-Aathaar (Difficult words in narrations), Daar al-Ma`aarif, India, 1333.

40. `Uqaili, Muhammad bin `Amr (…-322): ad-Du`afaa’ (The Weak Narrators), ms.

41. Ibn Abi Haatim (240-327): Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel (Authentication and Disparagement of Reporters), India.

42. ————: `Ilal al-Hadeeth (Defects in Hadeeth), As-Salafiyyah, Egypt, 1343.

43. Abu Ja`far al-Bukhturi, Muhammad bin `Amr ar-Razaaz (…-329): Al-Amaali, ms.

44. Abu Sa`eed bin al-A`raabi, Ahmad bin Ziyaad (246-340): Mu`jam, ms.

45. Ibn as-Sammaak, `Uthmaan bin Ahmad (…-344): Hadeeth, ms.

46. Abul-`Abbaas al-Asamm, Muhammad bin Ya`qoob (247-346): Hadeeth, ms.

47. Ibn Hibbaan (…-354): Saheeh, Daar al-Ma`aarif, Egypt.

48. Tabaraani (260-360): Al-Mu`jam al-Kabeer, several vols. of it as ms., Zaahiriyyah Library, Damascus.

49. ————: Al-Mu`jam al-Awsat min al-jam` bainahu wa bain as-Sagheer, ms.

50. ————: Al-Mu`jam as-Sagheer, Matba`ah al-Ansaari, Delhi, 1311.

51. Abu Bakr al-Aajuri (…-360): Al-Arba`een (Forty Hadeeth), ms.

52. ————: Aadaab Hamlah al-Qur’aan, ms.

53. Ibn as-Sunni (…-364): `Aml al-Yawm wal-Laylah, Daa’irah al-Ma`aarif, India, 1315.

54. Abu ash-Shaikh Ibn Hayyaan (274-369): Tabaqaat al-Isbahaaniyyeen, ms.

55. ————: Maa rawaahu Abu az-Zubair `an Ghair Jaabir (What Abu az-Zubair narrated from other than Jaabir), ms.

56. ————: Akhlaaq an-Nabi sall Allaahu `alaihi wa sallam (Manners of the Prophet), Egypt.

57. Daaraqutni (306-385): Sunan, India.

58. Khattaabi (317-388): Ma`aalim as-Sunan, Ansaar as-Sunnah, Egypt.

59. Mukhlis (305-393): Al-Fawaa’id, ms., Zaahiriyyah Library, Damascus.

60. Ibn Mandah, Abu `Abdullaah Muhammad bin Ishaaq (316-395): At-Tawheed wa Ma`rifah Asmaa’ Allaah Ta`aalaa, ms.

61. Haakim (320-405): Al-Mustadrak, Daa’irah al-Ma`aarif, Hyderabad, 1340.

62. Tammaam ar-Raazi (330-414): Al-Fawaa’id, 2 complete copies as ms., Zaahiriyyah Library, Damascus.

63. Sahmi, Hamzah bin Yoosuf al-Jurjaani (…-427): Taareekh Jurjaan (History of Jurjaan), printed.

64. Abu Nu`aim al-Isbahaani (336-430): Akhbaar Isbahaan (Reports from Isbahaan), printed in Europe.

65. Ibn Bushraan (339-430): Al-Amaali, most of its sections, ms., Zaahiriyyah Library, Damascus.

66. Baihaqi (384-458): as-Sunan al-Kubraa, Daa’irah al-Ma`aarif, Hyderabad, 1352.

67. ————: Dalaa’il an-Nubuwwah, ms., Ahmadiyyah Library, Halab.

68. Ibn `Abd al-Barr (368-463): Jaami` Bayaan al-`Ilm wa Fadlih, Al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah.

69. Ibn Mandah, Abul-Qaasim (381-470): Ar-Radd `alaa man Yunfi al-Harf min al-Qur’aan, ms., Zaahiriyyah Library, Damascus.

70. Baaji (403-477): Sharh al-Muwatta’, printed.

71. `Abd al-Haqq al-Ishbeeli (510-581): Al-Ahkaam al-Kubraa, ms.

72. ————: Tahajjud, ms.

73. Ibn al-Jawzi (510-597): At-Tahqeeq `alaa Masaa’il at-Ta`leeq, ms.

74. Abu Hafs al-Mu’aadib, `Amr bin Muhammad(516-607): Al-Muntaqaa min Amaali Abil-Qaasim as-Samarqandi, ms.

75. `Abd al-Ghani bin `Abd al-Waahid al-Maqdisi (541-600): Sunan, ms.

76. Diyaa’ al-Maqdisi (569-643): Al-Ahaadeeth al-Mukhtaarah, several vols. of it, ms., Zaahiriyyah Library, Damascus.

77. ————: Al-Muntaqaa min al-Ahaadeeth as-Sihaah wal-Hisaan (Selection of Authentic Ahaadeeth), ms.

78. ————: Juz’ fi Fadl al-Hadeeth wa Ahlih (Article on the Excellence of Hadeeth and its People), ms.

79. Mundhiri (581-656): At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (Encouragement and Deterrence), Al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah, Egypt.

80. Zayla`i (…-762): Nasb ar-Raayah (Hoisting of the Flaq), Daar al-Ma’moon, Egypt, 1357.

81. Ibn Katheer (701-774): Jaami` al-Masaaneed, ms.

82. Ibn al-Mulaqqin, Abu Hafs `Amr bin Abil-Hasan (723-804): Khulaasah al-Badr al-Muneer, ms.

83. `Iraaqi (725-806): Tarh at-Tathreeb, Jam`iyyah an-Nashr wat-Ta’leef al-Azhariyyah, 1353.

84. ————: Takhreej of Ghazaali’s Ihyaa’ `Uloom ad-Deen, Egypt, 1346.

85. Haithami (735-807): Majma` az-Zawaa’id: Husaam ad-Deen al-Qudsi, 1352.

86. ————: Mawaarid az-Zam’aan fi Zawaa’id Ibn Hibbaan, Muhibb ad-Deen publ.

87. ————: Zawaa’id al-Mu`jam as-Sagheer wal-Awsat lit-Tabaraani, ms.

88. Ibn Hajr al-`Asqalaani (773-852): Takhreej Ahaadeeth al-Hidaayah, India.

89. ————: Talkhees al-Habeer, Al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah.

90. ————: Fath al-Baari, Al-Matba`ah al-Bahiyyah.

91. ————: Al-Ahaadeeth al-`Aaliyaat, ms.

92. Suyooti (889-911): Al-Jaami` al-Kabeer, ms.

93. `Ali al-Qaari (…-1014): Al-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo`ah, Istanbul.

94. Manaawi (952-1031): Faid al-Qadeer Sharh al-Jaami` as-Sagheer, Mustafa Muhammad publ.

95. Zurqaani (1055-1122): Sharh al-Mawaahib al-Ladunniyyah, Egypt.

96. Shawkaani (1171-1250): Al-Fawaa’id al-Majmoo`ah fil-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo`ah, India.

97. `Abd al-Hayy Lucknowi (1264-1304): At-Ta`leeq al-Mumajjid `alaa Muwatta’ Muhammad, al-Mustafaa’i, 1297.

98. ————: Al-Aathaar al-Marfoo`ah fil-Akhbaar al-Mawdoo`ah, India.

99. Muhammad bin Sa`eed al-Halbi (…-…): Musalsalaat, ms.

100. Albaani, Muhammad Naasir ad-Deen al-: Takhreej Sifah Salaah an-Nabi, ms., the original sourcework for this book, in which it is referred to as al-Asl.

101. ————: Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel fi Takhreej Ahaadeeth Manaar as-Sabeel, 8 vols., al-Maktab al-Islaami, published completely – All Praise be to Allaah.

102. ————: Saheeh Abi Daawood, incomplete.

103. ————: Notes on `Abd al-Haqq al-Ishbeeli’s Ahkaam, incomplete.

104. ————: Takhreej of the ahaadeeth of Sharh `Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah, al-Maktab al-Islaami.

105. ————: Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah, 4 vols., al-Maktab al-Islaami.

D) FIQH

106. Maalik bin Anas (93-179): Al-Mudawwanah (Maaliki fiqh), Matba`ah as-Sa`aadah, 1323.

107. Shaafi`i, Muhammad bin Idrees (150-204): Al-Umm (Shaafi`i), al-Matba`ah al-Ameeriyyah, 1321.

108. Marwazi, Ishaaq bin Mansoor (…-251): Masaa’il al-Imaam Ahmad wa Ishaaq bin Raahawaih, ms.

109. Ibn Haani, Ibraaheem NaisaAburi (…-265): Masaa’il al-Imaam Ahmad, ms.

110. Muzani (175-264): Mukhtasar Fiqh ash-Shaafi`i, printed on the margin of al-Umm.

111. Abu Daawood (202-275): Masaa’il al-Imaam Ahmad (Hanbali), al-Manaar, 1353.

112. `Abdullaah bin al-Imaam Ahmad (203-290): Masaa’il al-Imaam Ahmad, ms.

113. Ibn Hazm (384-456): Al-Muhallaa (Zaahiri), al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah.

114. `Izz bin `Abd as-Salaam (578-660): al-Fataawaa, ms.

115. Nawawi (631-686): Al-Majmoo` Sharh al-Muhadhdhab (Shaafi`i), al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah.

116. ————: Rawdah at-Taalibeen (Shaafi`i), al-Maktab al-Islaami.

117. Ibn Taimiyyah (661-728): al-Fataawaa (Independent), Farj ad-Deen al-Kurdi publ.

118. ————: min Kalaam lahu fit-Takbeer fil-`Eedain wa ghairuh (Discussion on Takbeer in the Two `Eid Prayers), ms.

119. Ibn al-Qayyim (691-751): I`laam al-Muwaqqi`een (Independent).

120. Subki (683-756): al-Fataawaa (Shaafi`ee).

121. Ibn al-Humaam (790-869): Fath al-Qadeer (Hanafee), Boolaaq ed.

122. Ibn `Abd al-Haadi, Yoosuf (840-909): Irshaad as-Saalik (Hanbalee), ms.

123. ————: al-Furoo` (Hanbalee).

124. Suyooti (809-911): Al-Haawi lil-Fataawi (Shaafi`ee), al-Qudsi.

125. Ibn Nujaim al-Misri (…-970): Al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq (Hanafee), Al-Matba`ah al-`Ilmiyyah.

126. Sha`raani (898-973): Al-Meezaan (according to the four madhhabs).

127. Haitami (909-973): Ad-Darr al-Mandood fis-Salaah was-Salaam `alaa Saahib al-Maqaam al-Mahmood, ms.

128. ————: Asmaa al-Mataalib, ms.

129. Wali-ullah Dehlawi (1110-1176): Hujjat-ullaah al-Baalighah (Independent), al-Muneerah.

130. Ibn `Aabideen (1151-1203): Footnotes on ad-Darr al-Mukhtaar (Hanafee), Istanbul.

131. ————: Footnotes on al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq (Hanafee).

132. ————: Rasm al-Mufi (Hanafee).

133. `Abd al-Haqq (1264-1304): Imaam al-Kalaam feemaa yata`allaq bil-Qiraa’ah Khalf al-Imaam (Independent), Al-Baladi, India.

134. ————: An-Naafi` al-Kabeer liman yutaali` al-Jaami` as-Sagheer, Al-Yoosufi, India, 1349.

E) SEERAH (Biography of the Prophet sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and TARAAJUM (Biographies of the reporters of Hadeeth)

135. Ibn Abi Haatim, `Abd ar-Rahmaan (240-327): Taqaddamah al-Ma`rifah li Kitaab al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel, India.

136. Ibn Hibbaan (…-354): Ath-Thiqaat (Reliable Narrators), ms.

137. Ibn `Adi (277-365): Al-Kaamil, ms.

138. Abu Nu`aim (336-430): Hilyah al-Awliyaa’, Matba`ah as-Sa`aadah, Egypt, 1349.

139. Khateeb Baghdaadi (392-463): Taareekh Baghdaad (History of Baghdaad), Matba`ah as-Sa`aadah, Egypt.

140. Ibn `Abd al-Barr (368-463): Al-Intiqaa’ fi Fadaa’il al-Fuqahaa’.

141. Ibn `Asaakir (499-571): Taareekh Dimashq (History of Damascus), ms.

142. Ibn al-Jawzi (508-597): Manaaqib al-Imaam Ahmad, printed.

143. Ibn al-Qayyim (691-751): Zaad al-Ma`aad, Muhammad `Ali publ., 1353.

144. `Abd al-Qaadir al-Qurashi (696-775): Al-Jawaahir al-Madiyyah, India.

145. Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (736-795): Dhail at-Tabaqaat, Egypt.

146. `Abd al-Hayy Lucknowi (1264-1304): Al-Fawaa’id al-Bahiyyah fi Taraajum al-Hanafiyyah, Matba`ah as-Sa`aadah, Egypt, 1324.

F) THE ARABIC LANGUAGE

147. Ibn al-Atheer (544-606): An-Nihaayah fi Ghareeb al-Hadeeth wal-Athar, Al-Matba`ah al-`Uthmaaniyyah, Egypt, 1311.

148. Ibn Manzoor al-Afreeqi (630-711): Lisaan al-`Arab, Daar Saadir, Beirut, 1955 AC.

149. Fairoz Aabaadi (729-817): Al-Qaamoos al-Muheet, 3rd ed., 1353.

G) USOOL AL-FIQH (Principles of Fiqh)

150. Ibn Hazm (384-456): Al-Ihkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam, Matba`ah as-Sa`aadah, Egypt, 1345.

151. Subki (683-856): Ma`naa Qawl ash-Shaafi`i al-Matlabi, “idhaa sahh al-hadeeth fahuwa madhhabi” (The Meaning of Shaafi`i’s saying, “When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, that is my madhhab”), from Majmoo`ah ar-Rasaa’il, al-Muneeriyyah.

152. Ibn al-Qayyim (691-856): Badaa’i` al-Fawaa’id, Al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah.

153. Wali-ullaah Dehlawi (1110-1176): `Iqd al-Jeed fi Ahkaam al-Ijtihaad wat-Taqleed, India.

154. Fulaani (1166-1218): Eeqaaz al-Himam, Al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah.

155. Zurqaa’, Shaikh Mustafaa (contemporary): Al-Madkhal ilaa `Ilm Usool al-Fiqh, printed.

H) ADHKAAR

156. Ismaa`eel al-Qaadi al-Maqdisi (199-282): Fadl as-Salaah `alaa an-Nabi sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam, with my checking, Al-Maktab al-Islaami.

157. Ibn al-Qayyim (691-751): Jalaa’ al-Ifhaam fi as-Salaah `alaa Khair al-Anaam, Al-Matba`ah al-Muneeriyyah.

158. Siddeeq Hasan Khaan (1248-1307): Nuzul al-Abraar, Al-Jawaa’ib.

J) MISCELLANEOUS

159. Ibn Battah, `Abdullaah bin Muhammad (304-387): Al-Ibaanah `an Sharee`ah al-Firqah an-Naajiyah (Clarification of the Code of the Saved Sect), ms.

160. Abu `Amr ad-Daani, `Uthmaan bin Sa`eed (371-444): Al-Muktafaa fi Ma`rifah al-Waqf at-Taamm, ms.

161. Khateeb Baghdaadi (392-463): Al-Ihtijaaj bi ash-Shaafi`i feemaa asnada ilaih …, ms.

162. Harawi, `Abdullaah bin Muhammad al-Ansaari (396-481): Dhamm al-Kalaam wa Ahlah, ms.

163. Ibn al-Qayyim (691-751): Shifaa’ al-`Aleel fi Masaa’il al-Qadaa’ wal-Qadr wat-Ta`leel, printed.

164. Fairoz Aabaadi (729-817): Ar-Radd `alaa al-Mu`tarid `alaa Ibn `Arabi, ms.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 1 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
[1]Soorah an-Nahl, 16:44[2]Bukhaari & Muslim – it will later follow in full.[3]Bukhaari & Ahmad.

[4]Maalik, Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i, & Ibn Hibbaan. A saheeh hadeeth, declared saheeh by several Imaams. I have given its takhreej in Saheeh Abi Daawood (451, 1276).

[5]Saheeh – collected by Ibn al-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (10/21/1- 2), Abu Daawood & Nasaa’i with a good sanad; I have given its takhreej in Saheeh Abi Daawood (761).

[6]Abul-Hasanaat Al-Lucknowi says in An-Naafi’ al-Kabeer liman yutaali’ al-Jaami’ as-Sagheer (p. 122-3), after ranking the books of Hanafi fiqh and saying which of them are dependable and which are not: “All that we have said about the relative grades of these compilations is related to their content of fiqh issues; however, as for their content with regards to ahaadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), then it does not apply, for many books on which the cream of the fuqahaa’ rely are full of fabricated ahaadeeth, let alone rulings of the scholars. It is clear to us from a broad analysis that although their authors were otherwise competent, they were careless in their quotation of narrations.”

One of these false, fabricated ahaadeeth which are found in some of the best books is: “He who offers the compulsory prayers on the last Friday of Ramadaan, that will make up for every prayer he missed during his life up to the age of seventy years” ! Lucknowi (rahimahullaah) says in Al-Aathaar al-Marfoo’ah fil-Akhbaar al-Mawdoo’ah (p. 315), after giving this hadeeth, “‘Ali al-Qaari says in his al-Mawdoo’aat as- Sughraa and al-Kubraa: this is totally false, for it contradicts the ijmaa’ (consensus of opinion) that one act of worship cannot make up for those missed over years. Hence, there is no point in quoting the author of an-Nihaayah nor the rest of the commentators on al-Hidaayah, for they are not scholars of Hadeeth, nor did they reference this hadeeth to any of the collectors of Hadeeth.”

Shawkaani also mentioned this hadeeth in Al-Fawaa’id al- Majmoo’ah fil-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo’ah with a similar wording and then said (p. 54), “This is fabricated beyond doubt – I do not even find it in any of the compilations of fabricated ahaadeeth! However, it has become popular among some students of fiqh in the city of San’aa’ in this age of ours, and many of them have started acting according to it. I do not know who has fabricated it for them – May Allaah disgrace the liars.”

Lucknowi further says, “To establish that this hadeeth, which is found in books of rituals and formulas, is fabricated, I have composed a brief essay, with intellectual and narrated evidence, called Repelling the Brethren from the Inventions of the Last Friday of Ramadaan, in which I have filed points which will enlighten minds and to which ears will hearken, so consult it, for it is valuable in this topic and of high quality.”

The occurrence of similar false ahaadeeth in the books of fiqh destroys the reliability of other ahaadeeth which they do not quote from dependable books of Hadeeth. The words of ‘Ali al- Qaari contain an indication towards this: a Muslim must take Hadeeth from the people who are experts in that field, as the old Arabic sayings go, “The people of Makkah know its mountain- paths best” and “The owner of the house knows best what is in it.”

[7]Imaam Nawawi(rahimahullaah)’s words in Al-Majmoo’ Sharh al- Muhadhdhab (1/60) can be summed up as follows: “The researching scholars of the People of Hadeeth and others say that if the hadeeth is weak, it will not be said regarding it, ‘The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said/did/commanded/forbade …’ or any other phrase designating certainty, but instead it will be said, ‘It is reported/quoted/narrated from him …’ or other phrases suggesting uncertainty. They say that phrases of certainty are for saheeh and hasan ahaadeeth, and phrases of uncertainty are for anything else. This is because phrases designating certainty mean that what follows is authentic, so they can only be used in the case of what is authentic, otherwise one would effectively be lying about him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).

This convention is one ignored by most of the fuqahaa’ of our age, in fact, by most scholars of any discipline, except for the skilled muhadditheen. This is disgusting carelessness, for they often say about a saheeh hadeeth, ‘It is reported from him that …’, and about a da’eef one, ‘he said’ and ‘so- and-so reported …’, and this is far from correct.”

[8]Publisher’s note: Also in this category are the works of our teacher, author of e.g. Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel fi takhreej Manaar as-Sabeel in 8 volumes, & Ghaayah al-Maraam fi takhreej ahaadeeth al-Halaal wal-Haraam, a takhreej of the ahaadeeth found in Dr. Yoosuf al-Qaradaawi’s The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, (which contains many da’eef ahaadeeth).

[9]The term, “authentic hadeeth” includes saheeh and hasan in the eyes of the muhadditheen, whether the hadeeth is saheeh li dhaatihi or saheeh li ghairihi, or hasan li dhaatihi or hasan li ghairihi.

[10]an-Najm, 53:28

[11]Bukhaari & Muslim.

[12]Saheeh – collected by Tirmidhi, Ahmad & Ibn Abi Shaibah.

Later, I discovered that this hadeeth is actually da’eef: I had relied on Manaawi in declaring saheeh the isnaad of Ibn Abi Shaibah, but then I happened to come across it myself, and found that it was clearly weak, being the same isnaad as Tirmidhi and others – see my book Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad- Da’eefah (1783). However, its place is taken by the Prophet’s saying (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), “He who relates from me a saying which he knows is a lie is indeed one of the liars”, collected by Muslim and others.

[13]Abdul Hayy Al-Lucknowi says in Imaam al-Kalaam fimaa yata’allaq bil-Qiraa’ah Khalf al-Imaam (p. 156), as follows: “Whoever dives into the oceans of fiqh and the fundamentals of jurisprudence with an open mind, and does not allow himself to be prejudiced, will know with certainty that in most of the principal and subsidiary issues in which the scholars have differed, the madhhab of the scholars of Hadeeth is firmer than other madhhabs. Every time I go into the branches of difference of opinion, I find the view of the muhadditheen nearest to justice – their reward is with Allaah, and He will thank them. How could it be otherwise, when they are the true inheritors of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and the sincere agents of his Law; may Allaah include us in their company and make us die loving them.”

[14]Subki says in al-Fataawaa (1/148):

“The most important affair of the Muslims is the Prayer, which every Muslim must care about and ensure its performance and the establishment of its essentials. Related to Prayer are issues on which there is consensus and there is no escaping the truth, and other issues in which the scholars have differed. The correct approach is either to keep clear of dispute if possible, or to look for what is authentically- proven from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and adhere to that. When one does this, his Prayer will be correct and righteous, and included in the words of the Exalted, “So whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work correct, righteous deeds.” (Al-Kahf, 18:110)

I say: The latter approach is superior, nay, obligatory; this is because the former appeoach, as well as being impossible many issues, does not fulfil his command (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), Pray as you have seen me praying, but instead leads to one’s prayer being decidedly different to that of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).

[15]From the poetry of Hasan ibn Muhammad an-Nasawi, as narrated by Haafiz Diyaa’ ad-Deen al-Maqdisi in his article on the excellence of the Hadeeth and its People.

[16]Baqarah, 2:213

[17]Tirmidhi, Qudaa’i, Ibn Bushraan & others.

[18]This is the sort of taqleed (blind following ) which Imaam Tahaawi was referring to when he said, “Only someone with party-spirit or a fool blindly follows opinion” – quoted by Ibn ‘Aabideen in Rasm al-Mufti (vol. 1, p. 32 from the Compilation of his Essays).

[19]al-A’raaf, 7:3

[20]Ibn ‘Aabideen in al-Haashiyah (1/63), and in his essay Rasm al-Mufti (1/4 from the Compilation of the Essays of Ibn ‘Aabideen), Shaikh Saalih al-Fulaani in Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 62) & others. Ibn ‘Aabideen quoted from Sharh al-Hidaayah by Ibn al-Shahnah al-Kabeer, the teacher of Ibn al-Humaam, as follows:

“When a hadeeth contrary to the Madhhab is found to be saheeh, one should act on the hadeeth, and make that his madhhab. Acting on the hadeeth will not invalidate the follower’s being a Hanafi, for it is authentically reported that Abu Haneefah said, ‘When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, then that is my madhhab’, and this has been related by Imaam Ibn ‘Abdul Barr from Abu Haneefah and from other imaams.”

This is part of the completeness of the knowledge and piety of the Imaams, for they indicated by saying this that they were not versed in the whole of the Sunnah, and Imaam Shaafi’i has elucidated this thoroughly (see later). It would happen that they would contradict a sunnah because they were unaware of it, so they commanded us to stick to the Sunnah and regard it as part of their Madhhab. May Allaah shower His mercy on them all.

[21]Ar.: halaal

[22]Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in Al-Intiqaa’ fi Fadaa’il ath-Thalaathah al- A’immah al-Fuqahaa’ (p. 145), Ibn al-Qayyim in I’laam al- Mooqi’een (2/309), Ibn ‘Aabideen in his Footnotes on Al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq (6/293) and in Rasm al-Mufti (pp. 29,32) & Sha’raani in Al-Meezaan (1/55) with the second narration. The last narration was collected by ‘Abbaas ad-Dawri in At- Taareekh by Ibn Ma’een (6/77/1) with a saheeh sanad on the authority of Zafar, the student of Imaam Abu Haneefah. Similar narrations exist on the authority of Abu Haneefah’s companions Zafar, Abu Yoosuf and ‘Aafiyah ibn Yazeed; cf. Eeqaaz (p. 52). Ibn al-Qayyim firmly certified its authenticity on the authority of Abu Yoosuf in I’laam al-Mooqi’een (2/344). The addition to the second narration is referenced by the editor of Eeqaaz (p. 65) to Ibn ‘Abdul Barr, Ibn al-Qayyim and others.

If this is what they say of someone who does not know their evidence, what would be their response to one who knows that the evidence contradicts their saying, but still gives verdicts opposed to the evidence?! Therefore, reflect on this saying, for it alone is enough to smash blind following of opinion; that is why one of the muqallid shaikhs, when I criticised his giving a verdict using Abu Haneefah’s words without knowing the evidence, refused to believe that it was a saying of Abu Haneefah!

[23]Ar.: haraam

[24]Ar.: fatwaa

[25]i.e. Imaam Abu Haneefah’s illustrious student, Abu Yoosuf (rahimahullaah).

[26]This was because the Imaam would often base his view on Qiyaas (Analogy), after which a more potent analogy would occur to him, or a hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would reach him, so he would accept that and ignore his previous view. Sha’raani’s words in Al-Meezaan (1/62) are summarised as:

“Our belief, as well as that of every researcher into Imaam Abu Haneefah (radi Allaahu ‘anhu), is that, had he lived until the recording of the Sharee’ah, and the journeys of the Preservers of Hadeeth to the various cities and frontiers in order to collect and acquire it, he would have accepted it and ignored all the analogies he had employed. The amount of qiyaas in his Madhhab would have been just as little as that in other Madhhabs, but since the evidences of the Sharee’ah had been scattered with the Successors and their successors, and had not been collected in his lifetime, it was necessary that there be a lot of qiyaas in his Madhhab compared to that of other imaams. The later scholars then made their journeys to find and collect ahaadeeth from the various cities and towns and wrote them down; hence, some ahaadeeth of the Sharee’ah explained others. This is the reason behind the large amount of qiyaas in his Madhhab, whereas there was little of it in other Madhhabs.”

Abul-Hasanaat Al-Lucknowi quoted his words in full in An- Naafi’ al-Kabeer (p. 135), endorsing and expanding on it in his footnotes, so whoever wishes to consult it should do so there.

Since this is the justification for why Abu Haneefah has sometimes unintentionally contradicted the authentic ahaadeeth – and it is a perfectly acceptable reason, for Allaah does not burden a soul with more than it can bear – it is not permissible to insult him for it, as some ignorant people have done. In fact, it is obligatory to respect him, for he is one of the imaams of the Muslims through whom this Deen has been preserved and handed down to us, in all its branches; also, for he is rewarded under any circumstance: whether he is correct or wrong. Nor is it permissible for his devotees to continue sticking to those of his statements which contradict the authentic ahaadeeth, for those statements are effectively not part of his Madhhab, as the above sayings show. Hence, these are two extremes, and the truth lies in between. “Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith; and leave not, in our hearts, any rancour against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful.” (Al-Hashr 59:10)

[27]Al-Fulaani in Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 50), tracing it to Imaam Muhammad and then saying, “This does not apply to the mujtahid, for he is not bound to their views anyway, but it applies to the muqallid.”

Sha’raani expanded on that in Al-Meezaan (1/26):

“If it is said: ‘What should I do with the ahaadeeth which my Imaam did not use, and which were found to be authentic after his death?’ The answer which is fitting for you is: ‘That you act on them, for had your Imaam come across them and found them to be authentic, he would have instructed you to act on them, because all the Imaams were captives in the hand of the Sharee’ah.’ He who does so will have gathered all the good with both his hands, but he who says, ‘I will not act according to a hadeeth unless my Imaam did so’, he will miss a great amount of benefit, as is the case with many followers of the Imaams of the Madhhabs. It would be better for them to act on every hadeeth found to be authentic after the Imaam’s time, hence implementing the will of the Imaams; for it is our firm belief about the Imaams that had they lived longer and come to know of those ahaadeeth which were found authentic after their time, they would have definitely accepted and acted according to them, ignoring any analogies they may have previously made, and any views they may have previously held.”

[28]Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilm (2/32), Ibn Hazm, quoting from the former in Usool al-Ahkaam (6/149), & similarly Al-Fulaani (p. 72)

[29]This is well known among the later scholars to be a saying of Maalik. Ibn ‘Abdul Haadi declared it saheeh in Irshaad as- Saalik (227/1); Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilm (2/91) & Ibn Hazm in Usool al-Ahkaam (6/145, 179) had narrated it as a saying of Al-Hakam ibn ‘Utaibah and Mujaahid; Taqi ad- Deen as-Subki gave it, delighted with its beauty, in al- Fataawaa (1/148) as a saying of Ibn ‘Abbaas, and then said: “These words were originally those of Ibn ‘Abbaas and Mujaahid, from whom Maalik (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) took them, and he became famous for them.” It seems that Imaam Ahmad then took this saying from them, as Abu Daawood has said in Masaa’il of Imaam Ahmad (p. 276): “I heard Ahmad say, ‘Everyone is accepted and rejected in his opinions, with the exception of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)’.”

[30]From the Introduction to Al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel of Ibn Abi Haatim, pp. 31-2.

[31]Ibn Hazm says in Usool al-Ahkaam (6/118):

“Indeed, all the fuqahaa’ whose opinions are followed were opposed to taqleed, and they forbade their companions from following their opinion blindly. The sternest among them in this regard was Shaafi’i (rahimahullaah), for he repeatedly emphasised, more than anyone else, following the authentic narrations and accepting whatever the proof dictated; he also made himself innocent of being followed totally, and announced this to those around him. May this benefit him in front of Allaah, and may his reward be of the highest, for he was the cause of great good.”

[32]Related by Haakim with a continuous sanad up to Shaafi’i, as in Taareekh Dimashq of Ibn ‘Asaakir (15/1/3), I’laam al- Mooqi’een (2/363, 364) & Eeqaaz (p. 100).

[33]Ar.: halaal

[34]Ibn al-Qayyim (2/361) & Fulaani (p. 68)

[35]Harawi in Dhamm al-Kalaam (3/47/1), Khateeb in Al-Ihtijaaj bi ash-Shaafi’i (8/2), Ibn ‘Asaakir (15/9/10), Nawawi in Al- Majmoo’ (1/63), Ibn al-Qayyim (2/361) & Fulaani (p. 100); the second narration is from Hilyah al-Awliyaa’ of Abu Nu’aim.

[36]Nawawi in Al-Majmoo’ (1/63), Sha’raani (1/57), giving its sources as Haakim and Baihaqi, & Fulaani (p. 107). Sha’raani said, “Ibn Hazm said, ‘That is, … found to be saheeh by him or by any other Imaam’.” His saying given next confirms this understanding.

Nawawi says: “Our companions acted according to this in the matter of tathweeb (calling to prayer in addition to the adhaan), the conditions on coming out of ihraam due to illness, and other issues well-known in the books of the Madhhab. Among those of our companions who are reported to have passed judgment on the basis of the hadeeth (i.e. rather than the saying of Shaafi’i) are Abu Ya’qoob al-Buweeti and Abu l-Qaasim ad-Daariki. Of our companions from the muhadditheen, Imaam Abu Bakr Al-Baihaqi and others employed this approach. Many of our earliest companions, if they faced an issue for which there was a hadeeth, and the madhhab of Shaafi’i was contrary to it, would act according to the hadeeth and give verdicts based on it, saying, ‘The madhhab of Shaafi’i is whatever agrees with the hadeeth.’ Shaikh Abu ‘Amr (Ibn as-Salaah) says, ‘Whoever among the Shaafi’is found a hadeeth contradicting his Madhhab, he would consider whether he fulfilled the conditions of ijtihaad generally, or in that particular topic or issue, in which case he would be free to act on the hadeeth; if not, but nevertheless he found it hard to contradict the hadeeth after further analysis, he would not be able to find a convincing justification for opposing the hadeeth. Hence, it would be left for him to act according to the hadeeth if an independent imaam other than Shaafi’i had acted on it, and this would be justification for his leaving the Madhhab of his Imaam in that issue.’ What he (Abu ‘Amr) has said is correct and established. Allaah knows best.”

There is another possibility which Ibn as-Salaah forgot to mention: what would one do if he did not find anyone else who acted according to the hadeeth? This has been answered by Taqi ad-Deen as-Subki in his article, The Meaning of Shaafi’i’s saying, “When a hadeeth is found to be saheeh, then that is my madhhab” (p. 102, vol. 3): “For me, the best thing is to follow the hadeeth. A person should imagine himself in front of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), just having heard it from him: would there be leeway for him to delay acting on it? No, by Allaah … and everyone bears a responsibility according to his understanding.”

The rest of this discussion is given and analysed in I’laam al- Muwaqqi’een (2/302, 370) and in the book of al-Fulaane, (full title:) Eeqaaz Himam ulu l-Absaar, lil-Iqtidaa’ bi Sayyid al- Muhaajireen wal-Ansaar, wa Tahdheeruhum ‘an al-Ibtidaa’ ash- Shaa’i’ fi l-Quraa wal-Amsaar, min Taqleed al-Madhaahib ma’a l- Hamiyyah wal-‘Asabiyyah bain al-Fuqahaa’ al-A’saar (Awakening the Minds of those who have Perception, towards following the Leader of the Emigrants and Helpers, and Warning them against the Innovation Widespread among Contemporary Jurists in the Towns and Cities, of following Madhhabs with Zeal and Party- Spirit). The latter is a unique book in its field, which every desirer of truth should study with understanding and reflection.

[37]addressing Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullaah).

[38]Related by Ibn Abi Haatim in Aadaab ash-Shaafi’i (pp. 94-5), Abu Nu’aim in Hulyah al-Awliyaa’ (9/106), al-Khateeb in Al- Ihtijaaj bish-Shaafi’i (8/1), and from him Ibn ‘Asaakir (15/9/1), Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in al-Intiqaa’ (p. 75), Ibn al-Jawzi in Manaaqib al-Imaam Ahmad (p. 499) & Harawi (2/47/2) with three routes from ‘Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal from his father that Shaafi’i said to him: …etc; thus, it is authentic on the authority of Shaafi’i. This is why Ibn al- Qayyim attributed it definitely to him in I’laam (2/325), as did Fulaani in Eeqaaz (p. 152) and then said: “Baihaqi said, ‘This is why he – i.e. Shaafi’i – used hadeeth so much, because he gathered knowledge from the people of Hijaaz, Syria, Yemen and ‘Iraq, and so accepted all that he found to be authentic, without leaning towards or looking at what he had considered out of the Madhhab of the people of his land when the truth was clear to him elsewhere. Some of those before him would limit themselves to what they found in the Madhhab of the people of their land, without attempting to ascertain the authenticity of what opposed it. May Allaah forgive all of us’.”

[39]Abu Nu’aim (9/107), Harawi (47/1), Ibn al-Qayyim in I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een (2/363) & Fulaani (p. 104).

[40]Ibn Abi Haatim in al-Aadaab (p. 93), Abul Qaasim Samarqandi in al-Amaali, as in the selection from it by Abu Hafs al- Mu’addab (234/1), Abu Nu’aim (9/106) & Ibn ‘Asaakir (15/10/1) with a saheeh sanad.

[41]Ibn Abi Haatim, Abu Nu’aim & Ibn ‘Asaakir (15/9/2).

[42]Ibn Abi Haatim (pp. 93-4).

[43]Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Manaaqib (p. 192)

[44]Fulaani (p. 113) & Ibn al-Qayyim in I’laam (2/302).

[45]Ar.: ittibaa’

[46]Abu Daawood in Masaa’il of Imaam Ahmad (pp. 276-7)

[47]Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilm (2/149).

[48]Ibn al-Jawzi (p. 182).

[49]an-Nisaa’, 4:65

[50]an-Noor, 24:63

[51]Even against their fathers and learned men, as Tahaawi in Sharh Ma’aani al-Aathaar (1/372) & Abu Ya’laa in his Musnad (3/1317) have related, with an isnaad of trustworthy men, from Saalim ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar, who said:

“I was sitting with Ibn ‘Umar (radi Allaahu ‘anhu) in the mosque once, when a man from the people of Syria came to him and asked him about continuing the ‘Umrah onto the Hajj (known as Hajj Tamattu’). Ibn ‘Umar replied, ‘It is a good and beautiful thing.’ The man said, ‘But your father (i.e. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab) used to forbid it!’ So he said, ‘Woe to you! If my father used to forbid something which the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) practised and commanded, would you accept my father’s view, or the order of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ?’ He replied, ‘The order of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).’ He said, ‘So go away from me.’ Ahmad (no. 5700) related similarly, as did Tirmidhi (2/82) and declared it saheeh.

Also, Ibn ‘Asaakir (7/51/1) related from Ibn Abi Dhi’b, who said:

“Sa’d ibn Ibraaheem (i.e. the son of ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf) passed judgment on a man on the basis of the opinion of Rabee’ah ibn Abu ‘Abdur Rahmaan, so I informed him of the saying of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) which was contradictory to the judgment. Sa’d said to Rabee’ah, ‘We have Ibn Abi Dhi’b, whom I regard to be reliable, narrating from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) contrary to what I ruled.’ Rabee’ah said to him, ‘You have made your effort, and your judgment has been passed.’ Sa’d said, ‘Most amazing! I enforce the decree of Sa’d, and not the decree of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)! No, I shall withdraw the decree of Sa’d, son of the mother of Sa’d, and enforce the decree of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).’ So Sa’d called for the written decree, tore it up and gave a new verdict.”

[52]In fact, he would be rewarded, because of the Prophet’s saying (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): “When a judge passes judgment, if he makes his effort (ijtihaad) and rules correctly, he will have two rewards; if he makes his effort (ijtihaad) and rules wrongly, he will have one reward.” (Related by Bukhaari, Muslim & others.)

[53]Quoted in the notes on Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 93)

[54]Fulaani (p. 99)

[55]cf. al-Waaqi’ah 56:13-14

[56]Ibn ‘Aabideen in Haashiyah (1/62), & Lucknowi gave its source in an-Naafi’ al-Kabeer (p. 93) as Ghazaali .

[57]He himself says at the beginning of his Concise Shaafi’i Fiqh (printed in the margin of Imaam Shaafi’i’s Al-Umm):

“This book is a selection from the knowledge of Muhammad ibn Idrees al-Shaafi’i (rahimahullaah) and from the meanings of his sayings, to aid the understanding of whoever wants it, knowing of his forbidding the following of his, or anyone else’s, opinion, so that such a person may carefully look for his Deen in it.”

[58]In which he has explained his opposing his Imaam in about twenty masaa’il (nos. 42, 44, 103, 120, 158, 169, 172, 173, 228, 230, 240, 244, 274, 275, 284, 314, 331, 338, 355, 356 – from Ta’leeq al-Mumajjid ‘alaa Muwatta’ Muhammad (Important Notes on Muhammad’s Muwatta’))

[59]Ibn ‘Aabideen mentioned him among them in Haashiyah (1/74) & in Rasm al-Mufti (1/17). Qurashi mentioned him in Al- Jawaahir al-Madiyyah fi Tabaqaat al-Hanafiyyah (p. 347) and said, “He was a reliable transmitter of Hadeeth. He and his brother Ibraaheem were the two shaikhs of Balakh of their time.”

[60]Al-Fawaa’id al-Bahiyyah fi Taraajum al-Hanafiyyah (p. 116)

[61]Al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq (6/93) & Rasm al-Mufti (1/28).

[62]Al-Fawaa’id … (p. 116); the author then added a useful note:

“From this can be deduced the falsity of Makhool’s narration from Abu Haneefah: ‘that he who raises his hands during Prayer, his Prayer is ruined’, by which Ameer, the scribe of Itqaani, was deceived, as has been mentioned under his biography. ‘Isaam ibn Yoosuf, a companion of Abu Yoosuf, used to raise his hands, so if the above-mentioned narration had any foundation, Abu Yoosuf and ‘Isaam would have known about it … It can also be deduced that if a Hanafi ignored the madhhab of his Imaam in an issue due to the strength of the evidence against it, this would not take him outside the ranks of the Imaam’s followers, but this would in fact be proper taqleed in the guise of leaving taqleed; do you not see that ‘Isaam ibn Yoosuf left Abu Haneefah’s madhhab of not raising the hands, but he is stil counted as a Hanafi?… To Allaah I complain of the ignorance of our time, when they insult anyone who does not follow his Imaam in an issue because of the strength of evidence against it, and expel him from the fold of that Imaam’s followers! This is not surprising when those who do this are from the ordinary masses, but it is amazing when it comes from those who imitate men of learning but plod along that path like cattle!”

[63]an-Noor 24:51-52

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 2 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
[1]al-Anfaal, 8:46[2]ar-Room, 30:31-2[3]Houd, 11:118-9

[4]cf. Al-Ihkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam by Ibn Hazm, Hujjatullaah al-Baalighah by al-Dehlawi, & the latter’s essay dealing specifically with this issue, ‘Iqd al-Jeed fi Ahkaam al- Ijtihaad wat-Taqleed.

[5]See Faid al-Qadeer by al-Manaawi (1/209) or Silsilah al- Ahaadeeth ad-Da’eefah (1/76, 77)

[6]Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilm (2/81-2)

[7]ibid. (2/82, 88-9)

[8]ibid. (2/83-4)

[9]ibid (2/89)

[10]cf. Al-Intiqaa’ by Ibn ‘Abdul Barr (41), Kashf al-Mughatta fi Fadl al-Muwatta’ (pp. 6-7) by Ibn ‘Asaakir, & Tadhkirah al-Huffaaz by Dhahabi (1/195).

[11]Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilm (2/88)

[12]see Chapter Eight of the book, Maa Laa Yajooz min al-Khilaaf (pp. 65-72), where you will find numerous examples of what we have indicated, some of them involving scholars of Al-Azhar.

[13]Al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq.

[14]I now say: Muhammad al-Ghazaali’s recent writings such as his newly-released book entitled As-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah bayna Ahl al-Hadeeth wa Ahl al-Fiqh (The Prophetic Sunnah between the People of Hadeeth and the People of Fiqh) have confirmed that he himself is one of those inviters to Islaam who are “themselves utterly confused”! His writings have for long betrayed his confusion, his distortion of the Sunnah, and his using his intellect to authenticate or falsify ahaadeeth, not by turning to the principles and science of Hadeeth, nor to the experts of that field; instead, whatever appeals to him, he authenticates, even if it is weak, and declares unreliable whatever is not to his liking, even if it is agreed to be authentic!

His above approach is shown most obviously in his discussion of the ahaadeeth in his previous book Fiqh as- Seerah , where he explains his methodology of accepting unreliable ahaadeeth and discarding authentic ones on the basis of the text of the hadeeth alone, from which the reader can see that the objective criticism of Hadeeth has no value in his eyes if it contradicts a “reasoned analysis”, which varies enormously from person to person, for what is truth to one is falsehood to another! Thus the whole of Islaam becomes subject to personal whims, having no principles nor reference points except personal opinion; this is poles apart from the position of the early leading ‘ulamaa of Islaam, “that the Isnaad is part of the religion; were it not for the Isnaad, people would have said whatever they wished.”

His latest above-mentioned book has exposed to the people his Mu’tazilite methodology, his blatant disregard for the Imaams of Hadeeth and their efforts over the ages in serving the Sunnah, and distinguishing the genuine traditions from the unreliable ones, and his lack of appreciation of the efforts of the Imaams of Fiqh in their laying down principles and developing issues on that basis, for he takes from these and leaves from them whatever he wishes, with no consistency towards any set of principles or fundamentals!

[15]Bukhaari & Muslim.

[16]See the previous words of Imaam Muzani and Haafiz Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali.

[17]Bukhaari & Muslim; see Appendix Two for the full hadeeth.

[18]al-Anfaal, 8:24

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 3 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
1 This is a mutawaatir fact, so detail is not necessaary, although some of the evidence for it will follow.2 see Appendix 3.3 Collected by Bukhaari, Muslim & Siraaj.

4 Collected by Bukhaari, Muslim & Siraaj. Its takhreej is given in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (289 & 588)

5 Muslim; Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

6 Abu Daawood, Ibn Hibbaan in Thiqaat (1/12), Diyaa’ in Mukhtaarah with a hasan sanad,; Ibn as-Sukn declared it saheeh, as did Ibn Al-Mulaqqin in Khulaasah badr al-Muneer (22/1) and, before them, `Abdul Haqq al-Ishbeeli in his Ahkaam (no. 1394 with my checking). Ahmad used it as proof, as Ibn Haani reported from him in his Masaa’il(1/67).

7 Ahmad & Tirmidhi , who declared it saheeh.

8 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

9 Bukhaari & Muslim.

10 Baihaqi with a sanad meeting the requirements of Bukhaari and Muslim.

11 Tirmidhi and Haakim, who declared it saheeh, and I have given it in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (292), the publication of which Allaah has made easy.

12 Daaraqutni, Haakim, Baihaqi, Tirmidhi, Ibn Maajah & Tabaraani; it is given in Irwaa’ (296)

13 Bukhaari, Muslim, Ahmad, Siraaj, Tabaraani (3/108/2) & Ibn Sa`d (1/234). It is also in Irwaa’ (290)

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 4 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
14 i.e..,the `Asr prayer according to the correct saying of the majority of scholars, among them Abu Haneefah and his two students. There are ahaadeeth about this which Ibn Katheer has given in his Tafseer of the Qur’aan.15 Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, and Ahmad.16 Muslim and Bukhaari, and it is given in my book Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel under Hadeeth 394.

17 Bukhaari, Abu Daawood and Ahmad.

18 ibid. Khattaabi said, “The meaning of `Imran’s hadeeth is intended for a sick person who is able to undergo hardship and stand with difficulty. Hence the reward of praying sitting has been made half of the reward of praying standing: encouraging him to pray standing while allowing him to sit.” Ibn Hajr said in Fath al-Baari (2/468): “This deduction is valid”.

19 Ahmad & Ibn Maajah with a saheeh sanad.

20 Tabaraani, Bazzaar, Ibn as-Samaak in his hadeeth book (67/2) & Baihaqi . It has a saheeh isnaad as I have explained in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (323).

21 Bazzaar (68), Daaraqutni, `Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (82/2) and Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

22 Abu Daawood and Haakim, who declared it saheeh, as did Dhahabi. I have given it in as-Saheehah (319) and Irwaa’ (383)

23 Muslim and Abu Daawood.

24 Bukhaari and Muslim.

25i.e. voluntary prayer (night or forenoon), named so due to its content of tasbeeh (glorification).

26 Muslim and Ahmad.

27 Nasaa’i, Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/107/2), `Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (80/1) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

28 Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah. It is a mutawatir hadeeth as Tahaawi has mentioned.

29 Abu Daawood & Bazzaar (53, az-Zawa’id); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

30 ibid.

31 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi and Nawawi agreed. The first one is given in Irwaa’ (284)

32 ibid.

33 Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/110/2) with a saheeh isnaad.

34 This is the sunnah about the pulpit: that it should have three steps, not more, To have more is an innovation, from the period of Bani Umayyah, which often causes an interruption in the row, and to get out of that by having it in the western corner of the mosque or in the mihrab is another innovation, as is the raising of it in the wall like a balcony to which one ascends by means of steps in the wall! Whereas the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam). See Fath al-Baari (2/331).

35 Bukhaari , Muslim (who collected the other narration) & Ibn Sa`d (1/253). It is given in Irwaa’ (545)

36lit., “screen, cover”; in the context of prayer, it refers to an object just beyond the place of prostration, within which nothing should pass, as is detailed in this section.

37 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

38 Bukhaari & Muslim.

39 Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/93/1) with a sound isnaad.

40 Abu Daawood, Bazzaar (p. 54 – Zawaaid) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi and Nawawi agreed.

41 Bukhaari. The sutrah is a must for the Imaam or a person praying alone, even in a large mosque. Ibn Haani said in his Masaa’il from Imaam Ahmad (1/66): “Abu `Abdullaah (i.e. Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal) saw me one day when I was praying without a sutrah in front of me, and I was in a (large) congregational mosque, so he said to me: `Take something as a sutrah’, so I took a man as a sutrah.” This contains an indication that Imaam Ahmad did not differentiate between big or small mosques in taking a sutrah – and that is surely correct, but this is something neglected by most people, including imaams of mosques, in every land that I have visited, including Arabia which I was able to tour in Rajab of this year (1410), so the `ulamaa should tell the people and advise them of this, explaining its ruling and that it is also required in the Two Sacred Mosques.

42 Bukhaari, Muslim & Ibn Maajah

43 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

44 i.e., their kneeling place.

45 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

46 Muslim, Ibn Khuzaimah (92/2) & Ahmad.

47 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

48 Nasaa’i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

49 Bukhaari , Muslim & Abu Ya`laa (3/1107).

50 Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/95/1), Tabaraani (3/140/3) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

51Referring to the following prayer of the Prophet Sulaimaan (`alaihis salaam) which was answered by Allaah, as described in the Qur’aan: “My Lord! Forgive me, and grant me sovereignty not allowed to anyone after me, for You are indeed the Granter of Bounties. So we subjected to his power: the Wind, gently flowing to his order, wherever he wished; and the devils, every kind of builder and diver, and also others bound together in fetters. (Saad 38: 35-38)

52 Ahmad, Daaraqutni & Tabari with a saheeh isnaad, and similar in meaning to this hadeeth is found in Bukhaari and Muslim and others on the authority of several Companions. It is one of the many ahaadeeth which the Qadiani group disbelieve, for they do not believe in the world of the jinn which is mentioned in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. Their method of discarding the texts is well-known: if it is from the Qur’aan, they change its meaning e.g. the saying of the Exalted “Say, it has been revealed to me that a group of jinns listened” (72:1); they say “i.e. a group of humans”! making the word “jinn” synonymous with “human”! Hence they play with the language and the religion; if it is from the Sunnah, then if it is possible for them to change it with a false interpretation they do so, otherwise they find it easy to declare it to be false, even if all the Imaams of Hadeeth and the whole ummah behind them are agreed on its authenticity, nay its being mutawaatir. May Allaah guide them.

53 Bukhaari & Muslim, and the additional narration is from Ibn Khuzaimah (1/94/1).

54 ibid.

55 i.e. mature, and what is meant by `cut off’ is `rendered futile’. As regards the hadeeth: “Nothing cuts off the prayer”, then it is a weak hadeeth as I have shown in Tamaam al-Minnah (p. 306).

56 Muslim, Abu Daawood and Ibn Khuzaimah (1/95/2).

57 ibid.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 5 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
58 Nawawi says in Rawdah at-Taalibeen (1/224 published by Maktab al-Islami):”The intention is the purpose, so the person about to pray brings to mind that prayer and what is relevant of its characteristics, such as which prayer it is, whether it is obligatory etc. & he brings these things together in his intention with the first takbeer.”59 Bukhaari, Muslim and others. It is given in Irwaa’ (no. 22)

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 6 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
60 Muslim & Ibn Maajah. The hadeeth contains an indication that he did not use to commence it with the words of some people: “I intend to pray _etc.” which is in fact agreed to be an innovation. But they differ as to whether it is a good or bad innovation, to which we say: “Indeed all innovations in worship are misguided, from the generality of his statement (`alaihis salaatu was salaam), `_and all innovations are misleading, and every misleading thing is in the Fire’.” But this is not the place for a detailed discussion of this.61 Tabaraani with a saheeh isnaad.62 Abu Daawood, Tirmidhi and Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwaa’ (no. 301).

Literally, “the takbeer makes it haraam”, i.e. the actions which Allaah has made haraam during it, “and the tasleem makes it halaal” i.e. what is allowed outside prayer. Just as the hadeeth proves that the door to prayer is shut, no worshipper being able to open it except with purification, it similarly proves that the prayer cannot be entered except with takbeer, and that it cannot be exited except with tasleem. This is the view of the majority of scholars.

63 Ahmad & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

64 Muslim & Nasaa’i.

65 Ahmad & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

66 Bukhaari & Nasaa’i.

67 ibid.

68 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

69 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/62/2, 64/1), Tammaam & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

70 Bukhaari & Nasaa’i.

71 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

72 Muslim & Abu Daawood. It is also given in Irwaa’ (352).

73 Ibn Hibbaan & Diyaa’, with a saheeh isnaad.

74 Ahmad & Abu Daawood, with a saheeh isnaad.

75 Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/54/2) with a saheeh isnaad, and Ibn Hibbaan declared it saheeh (485).

76 Maalik, Bukhaari & Abu `Awaanah.

77 Nasaa’i and Daaraqutni with a saheeh isnaad. In this hadeeth there is evidence that grasping is from the sunnah, and in the previous hadeeth that so is placing, so both are sunnah. As for the combination of holding and placing, which some of the later Hanafis hold to be good, then that is an innovation; its form as they state is to place the right hand on the left, holding the wrist with the little finger and the thumb, and laying flat the remaining three fingers, as described in Ibn `Aabideen’s Footnotes on Durr al-Mukhtaar (1/454); so do not be confused by what they say.

78 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/54/2), Ahmad & Abu Shaikh in Taareekh Isbahaan (p. 125); Tirmidhi declared one of its isnaads hasan, and its meaning is found in Al-Muwatta’ and Saheeh Al-Bukhaari if considered carefully. I have fully quoted the isnaads of this hadeeth in my book Ahkaam al-Janaa’iz (p. 118)

NOTE: To place them on the chest is what is proved in the Sunnah, and all that is contrary to it is either da`eef or totally baseless. In fact, Imaam Ishaaq ibn Raahawaih acted on this sunnah, as Marwazi said in Masaa’il (p. 222): “Ishaaq used to pray witr with us _he would raise his hands in qunoot, and make the qunoot before bowing, and place his hands on his breast or just under his breast.” Similar is the saying of Qaadi `Iyaad al-Maaliki in Mustahabbaat as-Salaah in his book al-I`laam (p.15, 3rd edition, Rabat): “the right arm is to be placed on the back of the left, on the upper part of the chest.” Close to this is what `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal related in his Masaa’il (p. 62): “I saw that when praying, my father placed his hands, one on the other, above the navel.” See Appendix 4.

79 Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa’ (374) as well as the following one.

80 Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i and others.

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 7 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
81 Baihaqi and Haakim, who declared it saheeh and it is as he said. It also has a strengthening hadeeth reported by ten of his Companions: transmitted by Ibn `Asaakir (17/202/2). See Irwaa’ (354).*NB: These two ahaadeeth show that the sunnah is to fix one’s sight on the place of prostration on the ground, so the action of some worshippers of closing their eyes during Prayer is misdirected piety, for the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam).82 ibid.

83 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad (Irwaa’, 1771); what is meant here by `the House’ is the Ka’bah, as the context of this hadeeth shows.

84 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

85 Bukhaari, Muslim & Siraaj.

86 Tirmidhi & Haakim, who declared it saheeh, cf. Saheeh at-Targheeb (no. 353)

87 Bukhaari and Abu Daawood.

88 Transmitted by Abu Daawood and others. Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan declared it saheeh. See Saheeh at-Targheeb (no.555)

89 Ahmad and Abu Ya`laa. See Saheeh at-Targheeb (no. 556).

90 Mukhlis in Ahaadeeth Muntaqaah, Tabaraani, Rooyaani, Diyaa’ in al-Mukhtaarah, Ibn Maajah, Ahmad and Ibn `Asaakir. Haitami declared it saheeh in Asnaa al-Mataalib.

91 Muslim.

92 A woollen garment having marks.

93 A coarse garment without marks.

94 Bukhaari , Muslim & Maalik. It is given in Irwaa’ (376).

95 “A small room embedded in the ground slightly, like a small chamber or cupboard” (Nihaayah).

96 Bukhaari , Muslim & Abu `Awaanah. The Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) did not order the wiping out or tearing of the pictures but only removed them because – and Allaah knows best – they were not pictures of things having souls. The evidence for this is that he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) tore other pictures as proved by many narrations in Bukhaari and Muslim, and whoever wishes to explore this further should consult Fath al-Baari (10/321) and Ghaayah al-Maraam fi Takhreej Ahaadeeth al-Halaal wal-Haraam (nos. 131-145).

97 Bukhaari and Muslim.

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 8 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
98 Bukhaari , Muslim & Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/110/2). It is given in Irwaa’ (no. 8)99Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.100 It is thus in most of the narrations; in some, it is wa ana min al-muslimeen (“I am one of the Muslims”). It is likely that this is because of the mistake of one of the narrators, and other evidence points to that, so the worshipper should say: wa ana min al-muslimeen (“I am the first of the Muslims”). There is nothing wrong with that, contrary to what some people say under the impression that this means “I am the first person who has this quality, while the rest of the people do not.” But it is not so; this phrase actually represents competing to fulfil orders – similar to this is “Say: if the Merciful God has a son, then I am the first of the worshippers” (Zukhruf 43:81) and the saying of Moosa (`alaihis salam), “and I am the first of the believers.” (A`raaf 7:143)

101 Azhari said: i.e. `I do not worship anything other than You.’

102 labbaik: I am firmly & continually present in Your obedience; sa`daik: extremely happy under Your order and devoutly following the deen which You have chosen.

103 i.e. Evil cannot be traced back to Allaah because there is nothing bad in His actions, for they are all good, ranging from justice to grace to wisdom, all of which are good with no bad in them. But evil is evil because it cannot be traced back to Allaah. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said: “He is the Creator of good and evil, but the evil exists in some of His creatures, not in His act of creating nor in His actions. Hence the Exalted is cleared of any zulm, which is fundamentally to put something in other than its proper place. He does not put anything except in its suitable place, so that is all good. But evil is to put something in other than its proper place: when it is put in its proper place it is not evil, so be sure that evil is not from Him. …But if it is said: Why did He create something which is evil? I would say: He did the creating, and His action is good not evil, for creation and action is with Allaah, and it is impossible for evil to be with, or attributed to, Allaah. Anything evil in the created cannot be traced back to Allaah, but His actions and His creation can be attributed to Him, so they are good.” The rest of this important discussion as well as its conclusion is to be found in his book Shifaa’ al-`Aleel fi Masaa’il al-Qadaa’ wal-Qadr wat-Ta`leel (pp. 178-206).

104 Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i Ibn Hibbaan, Ahmad, Shaafi’i & Tabaraani; those who specify it to optional prayers are mistaken.

105 Nasaa’i with a saheeh isnaad.

106Nasaa’i & Daaraqutni with a saheeh isnaad.

107 i.e I glorify You, meaning I consider You totally free from any deficiency.

108 i.e. we are submerged in Your praise.

109 i.e. the blessings of Your Name are great, for great good springs from the remembrance of Your Name.

110 i.e. Your Glory and Might.

111 Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. `Uqaili said (p. 103): “this has been narrated via several routes with good isnaads.” It is given in ‘Irwaa (no. 341) Transmitted by Ibn Mandah in At-Tawheed (123/2) with a saheeh isnaad & Nasaa’i in al-Yawm wal-Laylah as mawqoof and marfoo`, as in Jaami` al-Masaaneed of Ibn Katheer (vol. 3 part 2 p. 235/2)

112 Abu Daawood & Tahaawi with a hasan isnaad.

113 Muslim & Abu `Awaanah; declared saheeh by Tirmidhi. Abu Nu`aim also narrated it in Akhbaar Isbahaan (1/210) from Jubair ibn Mut`am who heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) saying it in voluntary prayer.

114 Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

115 i.e. You are the Giver of Light to them, and those in them are guided by You.

116 i.e. the Protector and the constant Watcher over them.

117 haqq: truth, reality.

118 Bukhaari , Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Abu Daawood, Ibn Nasr & Daarimi.

119Although that clearly does not rule out using them in the obligatory prayers also, except for the imaam, so that he does not prolong the prayer for the followers.

120 Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

121 Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/119/2), Abu Daawood & Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Awsat (62/2) with one isnaad saheeh, and another hasan.

122 Tayaalisi & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

 

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 9 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
123 The three `Arabic words hamz, nafkh, and nafth, were interpreted such by the narrator; all three interpretations are also traced back to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) with a saheeh mursal isnaad. By “poetry” here is meant the vain kind, for the Prophet (on whom be peace and blessings) said: “Truly, some poetry is wisdom” (Bukhaari ).124 Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Daaraqutni & Haakim who, along with Ibn Hibbaan and Dhahabi, declared it saheeh. It is given along with the next one in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (342).125 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi with a hasan isnaad. Ahmad endorsed it (Masaa’il of Ibn Haani 1/50).

126 Bukhaari , Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Tahaawi & Ahmad.

127 Abu Daawood & Sahmi (64 -65); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwaa’ (343). Abu `Amr ad-Daani transmitted it al-Muktafaa (5/2) and said: “This hadeeth has many routes, and it is what is depended upon in this regard, and several of the past imaams and reciters preferred to stop at every verse, even if some were connected (in meaning) to the one after.” I say: This is a sunnah which has been neglected by the majority of the reciters of this age, let alone others.

128 Tammaam ar-Raazi in al-Fawaa’id, Ibn Abi Dawood in al-Masaahif (7/2), Abu Nu`aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan (1/104) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Both of these recitations are mutawaatir.

129 Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Baihaqi. It is given in Irwaa’ (302).

130 Daaraqutni, who declared it saheeh, and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh. It is also in Irwaa’ (302).

131 Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

132 i.e. soorah al-Fatihah. It is an example of the wording including the whole prayer but intending only a part, as a way of emphasis on that part.

133 Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Maalik, and Sahmi has a supporting hadeeth of Jaabir in Taareekh Jurjaan (144)

134 Baaji said: “He is referring to the saying of the Exalted “And We have bestowed upon you seven of the Oft-Repeated and the Grand Recitation. (Hijr 15:87). It is named the “seven” because it has seven verses, and “oft-repeated” because it is repeated again and again in prayer. It has been called “the grand recitation” to specify this name for it, even though every part of the Qur’aan is a grand recitation; similarly, the Ka`bah is “the House of Allaah” even though all houses belong to Allaah; this is by way of specifying it and emphasising its importance.”

135 Nasaa’i & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

136 Bukhaari in his article on “Recitation behind the Imaam” with a saheeh isnaad.

137 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/80/2), Haakim, Tabaraani & Ibn Hibbaan who, along with Haakim, declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is in Irwaa’ (303).

138 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan; its isnaad is saheeh. (Saheeh Abi Dawood no. 807)

139 hadhdhan: reciting quickly, implying racing or hurrying.

140 Bukhaari in his pamphlet, Abu Daawood & Ahmad. Tirmidhi & Daaraqutni declared it hasan.

141 Maalik, Humaidi, Bukhaari in his pamphlet, Abu Daawood & Mahaamali (6/139/1). Tirmidhi declared it hasan; Abu Haatim ar-Raazi, Ibn Hibbaan & Ibn Qayyim declared it saheeh.

142 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/97/1), Abu Daawood, Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ruwayaani in his musnad (24/119/1). It is given in Irwaa’ (332, 394).

143 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/97/1), Daaraqutni, Ibn Maajah, Tahaawi & Ahmad from numerous routes, musnad and mursal. Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah declared it strong, as in al-Furoo` of Ibn `Abdul Haadi (48/2). Boosayri declared some of its isnaads saheeh. I have discussed it in detail and investigated its routes of narration inthe manuscript version and then in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (no. 500)

144 Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnaad. It is given in Irwaa’ (506)

145 Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Siraaj.

146 Bukhaari in his article, Ahmad & Siraaj with a hasan isnaad.

147 Maalik & Bukhaari in Af`aal al-`Ibaad with a saheeh isnaad.

* NB The view of the validity of recitation behind the imaam in quiet but not loud prayers was taken by Imaam Shaafi`i initially, and by Muhammad the student of Abu Haneefah in a narration from him which was preferred by Shaikh `Ali al-Qaari and other shaikhs of the madhhab; it was also the position of, among others, the Imaams Zuhri, Maalik, Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, several of the muhadditheen, and it is the preference of Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah.

148 Tirmidhi & Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnaad. Transmitted also by Aajuri in Aadaab Haml al-Qur’aan. As for the hadeeth, “He who recites behind the imaam, his mouth is filled with fire”, it is fabricated (mawdoo`) and this is explained in Silsilat al-ahaadeeth al-da`eefah (no. 569) – see Appendix 5.

149 Bukhaari in Juz’ al-Qiraa’ah & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

150 Bukhaari , Muslim, Nasaa’i, & Daarimi; the additional wordings are reported by the latter two, and prove that this hadeeth cannot justify that the imaam does not say aameen, as reported from Maalik; hence, Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Baari, “It clearly shows that the imaam says aameen.” Ibn `Abdul Barr says in Tamheed (7/13), “It is the view of the majority of the Muslims, including Maalik as the people of Madeenah report from him, for it is authentic from Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) through the ahaadeeth of Abu Hurairah (i.e. this one) and that of Waa’il ibn Hujr (i.e. the previous one).”

151 Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

152 Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ahmad & Siraaj with two saheeh isnaads.

*NB The aameen of the congregation behind the imaam should be done loudly and simultaneously with the imaam, not before him as the majority of worshippers do, nor after him. This is what I finally find most convincing, as I have explained in some of my works, among them Silsilat al-ahaadeeth ad-da`eefah (no. 952, vol. 2) which has been printed and published by the grace of Allaah, and Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/205). See Appendix 6.

153 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad; the other hadeeth was transmitted by Ibn Abi Dawood in al-Masaahif (4/14/2). This and other similar hadeeths contain permission for infants to enter the mosque. As for the hadeeth on many lips: “Keep your small children away from your mosques…”, it is da`eef and cannot be used for proof at all; among those who have declared it da`eef are Ibn al-Jawzi, Mundhiri, Haitami, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani and Boosayri. `Abdul Haqq al-Ishbeeli said, “It is baseless”.

154 Bukhaari & Muslim.

155 There are many ahadeeth mentioned further on which prove this.

156 Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/100/1), Ahmad & `Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (9/2) with a saheeh isnaad.

157 Ibn Nasr & Tahaawi with a saheeh isnaad; I take the meaning of the hadeeth as: Make every rak`ah have a complete soorah. The order is one of preference, not compulsion, from the evidence which follows.

158 Ahmad & Abu Ya`laa from two routes. Also see “Recitation in Fajr prayer”.

159 As he did in Fajr, as will follow.

160 Details and sources will follow shortly.

161 i.e. a soorah after al-Fatihah.

162 Bukhaari as ta`leeq & Tirmidhi as mawsool, and he declared it saheeh.

163 nazaa’ir: soorahs which are similar in meaning, e.g. they both contain advice, commandments, or stories.

164 These are agreed to end at the end of the Qur’aan; the soundest view is that they begin with soorah Qaaf (no. 50).

165 Bukhaari & Muslim.

166 The first number is that of the soorah, while the second is the number of aayaat in the soorah. By inspecting the first of the two numbers in each case, it is easy to see that in many of these combinations, he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) did not stick to the Qur’aanic order of the soorahs, so this is evidence for the permissibility of doing this, even though it is better to follow the sequence of the Qur’aan. A similar case is to be found later under “Night prayer”.

167 Muslim & Tahaawi.

168 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. This hadeeth is general, so it applies to both recitation during prayer, whether voluntary or obligatory, and outside it. Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/2) has transmitted from Abu Moosa al-Ash`ari and Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah that they used to say this in obligatory prayers, and from `Umar and `Ali without such specification.

169 In the original, “the young man said”.

170 dandanah: when someone speaks some words such that their intonation is audible but they cannot be understood; it is a little bit more than murmuring. (Nihaayah)

171 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1634) & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. It has a supporting narration in Abu Daawood (no. 758, Saheeh Abi Dawood) and the basic story is in Bukhaari and Muslim. The first addition is in one narration of Muslim, the second in Ahmad (5/74), and the third and fourth in Bukhaari . Also under this heading is the hadeeth on the authority of Ibn `Abbaas: “that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) prayed two rak`ahs in which he recited only al-Fatihah”, transmitted by Ahmad (1/282), Haarith ibn Abi Usaamah in his musnad (p.38 of its zawaaid) and Baihaqi (2/62) with a da`eef isnaad. I used to declare this hadeeth hasan in previous works, until I realised that I had been mistaken, because this hadeeth depends on Hanzalah al-Dawsi, who is da`eef, and I do not know how this was unknown to me; maybe I thought he was someone else. Anyway, praise is due to Allaah who guided me to recognise my mistake, and that is why I hurried to correct it in print. Then Allaah compensated me with this better hadeeth of Mu`aadh which relates to what the hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas indicated. Praise be to Allaah by whose Grace good actions are completed.

172 There is Ijmaa` (consensus of opinion) of the Muslims on this, with successors passing it on from the predecessors, along with authentic hadeeths which establish this, as Nawawi has said, and some of them follow. See also Irwaa’ (345).

173 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

174 Bukhaari & Muslim.

175 see the sections on his recitation in Friday prayer and the two `Eid prayers.

176 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

177 Bukhaari & Muslim.

178 `Abdul Haqq said in Tahajjud (90/1):

“As for voluntary prayers during the day, there is nothing authentic from him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) regarding either quiet or loud recitation, but it would seem that he used to recite quietly during them. It is reported from him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) that once, during the daytime, he passed by `Abdullaah ibn Hudhaafah who was praying and reciting loudly, so he said to him: O `Abdullaah, let Allaah hear, not us. But this hadeeth is not strong.”

179 Muslim & Bukhaari in Af`aal al-`Ibaad.

180 Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi in Shamaa’il with a hasan isnaad. The hadeeth means that he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) used to moderate between quietness and loudness.

181 Nasaa’i, Tirmidhi in Shamaa’il & Baihaqi in Dalaa’il with a hasan isnaad.

182 Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh, and Dhahabi agreed.

183 ibid.

184 The last seventh of the Qur’aan, beginning with soorah Qaaf (no. 50) according to the soundest view, as before.

185 Nasaa’i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

186 Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/69/1) & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreeed.

187 Bukhaari & Muslim.

188 Muslim & Tirmidhi. It is given along with the next one in Irwaa’ (345).

189 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

190 Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. And what is apparent is that he (`alaihis salaam) did it on purpose to establish its validity.

191 Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/76/1), Ibn Bushraan in al-Amaali & Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/176/1); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

192 lit. “the two by means of which refuge is sought”, i.e. the last two surahs of the Qur’aan, both beginning “Say: I seek refuge

193 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

194 Bukhaari & Muslim.

195 Nasaa’i, Ahmad & Bazzaar with a good isnaad.

196 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

197 Moosaa is mentioned in aayah 45: “Then We sent Moosaa and his brother Haaroon, with our signs and manifest authority. ; `Isa is mentioned soon after in aayah 50: “And We made the son of Maryam and his mother as a sign – we gave them both shelter on high ground, affording rest and security and furnished with springs.

198 Muslim, & Bukhaari in ta`leeq.form. It is given in Irwaa’ (397).

199 Ahmad & Abu Ya`laa in their musnads, and Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah.

200 Bukhaari & Muslim.

201 ibid.

202 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

203 Bukhaari & Muslim.

204 Muslim, Ibn Khuzaimah & Haakim.

205 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

206 ibid.

207 Ibn Maajah & Ibn Khuzaimah.

208 Tahaawi, Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh & Ibn Bushraan; Ibn Haajar declared it hasan in al-Ahaadeeth al-`Aaliyaat (no. 16).

209 Bukhaari & Muslim.

210 Muslim, & Bukhaari in Juz’ al-Qiraa’ah (Article on Recitation).

211 Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/165/1).

212 Ahmad & Muslim.

213 Abu Daawood, Tirmidhee& Ibn Khuzaimah (1/67/2); the latter two declared it saheeh.

214 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/67/2).

215 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

216 Ahmad & Muslim. The hadeeth contains evidence that reciting more than al-Faatihah in the last two rak`ahs is a sunnah, and many Companions did so, among them Abu Bakr Siddeeq (may Allaah be pleased with him). It is also the view of Imaam Shaafi`i, whether in Zuhr or others, and of our later scholars, Abul Hasanaat al-Lucknowi took it in Notes on Muhammad’s al-Muwatta’ (p. 102) and said:

“Some of our companions take hold a very strange view in obligating a sajdah sahw (prostration for forgetfulness) for the recitation of a soorah in the last two rak`ahs, but the commentators on al-Maniyyah, Ibraaheem al-Halabi, Ibn Ameer Haajj and others, have refuted this view extremely well. There is no doubt that those who said this were unaware of the hadeeth, and had it reached them they would not have said so.”

217 Bukhaari & Muslim.

218 Ibn Khuzaimah in his saheeh (1/67/2) & Diyaa’ al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah with a saheeh isnaad.

219 Bukhaari in Article on Recitation & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

220 Muslim & Tayaalisi.

221 Bukhaari & Muslim.

222 ibid.

223 Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah.

224 Ahmad & Muslim.

225 Bukhaari & Muslim.

226 ibid.

227 ibid (Bukhaari & Muslim).

228 Nasaa’i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

229 Tayaalisi & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

230 Ibn Khuzaimah (1/166/2), Tabaraani & Maqdisi with a saheeh isnaad.

231 Bukhaari & Muslim.

232 ibid.

233 called “at-toolayain”: A`raaf (7) is agreed to be one; An`aam (6) is the other, according to the most correct saying, as in Fath al-Baari.

234 Bukhaari, Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/68/1), Ahmad, Siraaj & Mukhlis.

235 Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad.

236 Ahmad, Maqdisi, Nasaa’ee Ibn Nasr & Tabaraani .

237 Nasaa’i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

238 Ahmad & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan.

239 Bukhaari, Muslim & Nasaai.

240 ibid.

241 ibid. It is also given in Irwaa’ (295)

242Nasaai with Saheeh isnaad.

243 Bukhaari & Muslim.

244 The narration is like this, with Nisaa’ (4) before aal-`Imraan (3), and thus it is evidence for (the permissibility of) departing from the order of surahs found in the `Uthmaani copy of the Qur’aan in recitation. An example of this has already been seen.

245 Muslim & Nasaa’i .

246 Abu Ya`laa & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Ibn al-Atheer says: “… the Seven Long surahs are Baqarah (2), aal-`Imraan (3), Nisaa’ (4), Maa’idah (5), An`aam (6), A`raaf (7) and Tawbah (9).”

247 Abu Daawood & Nasaa’i with a saheeh isnaad.

248 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

249 Bukhaari & Muslim.

250 Nasaa’i & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

251 Bukhaari & Ahmad.

252 Daarimi & Sa`eed ibn Mansoor in his sunan with a saheeh isnaad.

253 Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

254 Daarimi & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

255 Ar. shirrah: excitement, enthusiasm, keenness, energy. The shirrah of youth is his its beginning and its fervour/zeal. Imaam Tahaawi says:

“This is the zeal/fervour of the Muslims in their actions which bring them nearer to their Lord. However they are bound to fall short and leave some actions (which they began due to this zeal) so the most beloved of their actions to Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) were those done otherwise (and kept up), so he ordered them to carry out righteous deeds which they are able to do continually and keep to until they meet their Lord-the Mighty and Majestic. It is narrated from him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) to clarify this that he said: “The actions most loved by Allaah are those which are the most regular, even if they are little.

I say: this hadeeth which he prefixes with the words “it is narrated” is saheeh, agreed upon by Bukhaari & Muslim from the narration of `Aa’ishah (Allaah be pleased with her).

256 Ar. fatrah: interval, break, lapse; referring here to a period of reduced enthusiasm.

257 Ahmad & Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh.

258 Ibn Sa`ad (1/376) & Abu ash-Shaikh in `Akhlaaq Nabi (281).

259 Daarimi & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

260 ibid.

261 Ahmad & Ibn Nasr with a saheeh isnaad.

262 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

263 Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

264Muslim & Abu Daawood. This hadeeth and others make it disliked (makrooh) to stay awake the whole night, whether always or regularly, for it is against the example of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam); for if staying up the whole night were better, he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) would have done so, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. So do not be deceived by what is narrated from Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) that he prayed Fajr with the ablution of `Ishaa’ for forty years!! (translator’s note: see Tablighi Nisab: Virtues of Salaat by Maulana Zakariyya Kandhalvi for examples of this type of claim) For this narration from him is totally baseless; in fact `Allaamah al-Fairoozaabaadi says in Ar-Radd `alaa al-Mu`tarid ((44/1):

“This narration is a clear lie and cannot be attributed to the Imaam, for there is nothing excellent about it, whereas it was the nature of the likes of the Imaam to do the better thing; there is no doubt that the renewal of purification for each prayer is more excellent, most complete, and best. This is even if it is correct that he stayed awake the length of the night for forty consecutive years! This story seems more like a fairy tale, and is an invention of some of the extremely ignorant fanatics, who say it about Abu Haneefah and others, and all of it is lies.”

265 Nasaa’i, Ahmad & Tabaraani (1/187/2); Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

266 Nasaa’i, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/70/1), Ahmad, Ibn Nasr & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

267 Ahmad & Bukhaari .

268 Nasaa’i & Haakim, who declared it saheeh.

269 Tirmidhi, Abul `Abbaas al-Asamm in his al-Hadeeth (vol 2 no. 117) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

270 Nasaa’i & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

271 The evidence for these two rak`ahs is found in Saheeh Muslim and others as a practice of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), but they oppose his saying: Make the last of your prayer at night odd (witr) transmitted by Bukhaari and Muslim. The scholars have differed in reconciling these two hadeeth, none of them being convincing to me, so the most cautious thing is to leave the two rak`ahs in compliance with the command of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam). Allaah knows best.

Later I came across an authentic hadeeth which had a command for two rak`ahs after witr, so the order of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) agrees with his action, and the two rak`ahs are validated for everyone; the first command is thus one of recommendation, not negating the two rak`ahs. The latter hadeeth is given in Silsilat al-ahaadeeth as-saheehah (1993) – see Appendix 7.

272 Ahmad & Ibn Nasr and Tahaawi (1/202) and Ibn Khuzaimah & Ibn Hibbaan with a hasan saheeh isnaad.

273 Muslim & Abu Daawood. It is given in Irwaa’ (345).

274 ibid.

275 Muslim & Abu Daawood.

276 ibid.

277 ibid.

278 This is the saying of Imaam Shaafi`i, Ahmad and Ishaaq, and some of the later Hanafis who researched took this view. As for the recitation of a soorah after it, this is the view of some of the Shaafi`ees and it is the correct view.

279 Bukhaari , Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i & Ibn al-Jaarood. The addition is not shaadhdh (odd) as Tuwaijiri thinks.

280 Nasaa’i & Tahaawi with a saheeh isnaad. 1Ibn al-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (162/1 from al-Kawaakib 575), Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

2Muslim & Maalik.

3Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

4Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

5Bukhaari in Af`aal al-`Ibaad with a saheeh isnaad.

6In the section on “Recitation of one verse at a time”.

7Tarjee` -explained as a vibrating tone by Ibn Hajar; Manaawi said: “It arises from a feeling of joy & happiness, which he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) felt a good deal on the day of the conquest of Makkah.”

8Bukhaari & Muslim.

9ibid. Ibn Hajar said in his commentary on”aaa (| | |)”, “this is a hamzah with a fathah, followed by a silent alif, followed by another hamzah.” Shaikh `Ali al-Qaari quoted likewise from others and then said: “It is obvious that this is three prolonged alifs.”

10Bukhaari as ta`leeq, Abu Daawood, Darimi, Haakim and Tammaam al-Raazi with two saheeh isnaads.

NOTE: This hadeeth was turned round by one of the narrators, who narrated it as “beautify your voices with the Qur’aan”. This is a mistake in narration and understanding, and whoever declared it saheeh is submerged in error, for it contradicts the authentic explanatory narrations in this section. In fact, it is a prime example of a maqloob hadeeth, and the details of this brief note are in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah (no. 5328).

11A saheeh hadeeth transmitted by Ibn al Mubarak in az-Zuhd (162/1 from al-Kawaakib 575), Daarimi, Ibn Nasr, Tabaraani, Abu Nu`aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan and Diyaa’ in al-Mukhtaarah.

12Daarimi & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

13Abu Daawood and Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

14 Mundhiri said, “taghannnaa does mean to recite in a pleasant voice; Sufyaan bin `Uyainah and others took the the view that it is to do with istighnaa (i.e. letting the Qur’aan make one dispense with worldly pleasures), but this is rejected.”

15Bukhaari, Muslim, Tahaawi & Ibn Mandah in Tawheed (81/1).

16The scholars have said that musical instruments here means a beautiful voice and that the family of Daawood refers to Daawood himself; the family of so-and-so can be specifically for so-and-so only; Daawood (`alaihis salaam) had an extremely beautiful voice. This is mentioned by Nawawi in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim.

17`Abdur Razzaaq in al-Amaali (2/44/1), Bukhaari, Muslim, Ibn Nasr and Haakim.

18 Abu Daawood, Ibn Hibbaan, Tabaraani, Ibn `Asaakir (2/296/2) & Diyaa’ in al-Mukhtaarah with a saheeh isnaad.

19 Ar. tafl: to blow with a minimum amount of saliva – Nihaayah.

20 Muslim & Ahmad. Nawawi (rahimahullaah) says, “This hadeeth contains a recommendation to seek refuge from the devil when he tempts, along with spitting to the left three times.”

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (saws)Chapter 10 Footnotes 

Table of Contents
21 Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh & Dhahabi agreed.22 Bukhaari & Muslim. This raising of the hands is reported as mutawaatir from him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), as is the raising of the hands on straightening up after rukoo`. It is the madhhab of the three Imaams Maalik, Shaafi`i and Ahmad, and of the majority of scholars of hadeeth and fiqh. Imaam Maalik (rahimahullaah) practised it right up to his death, as reported by Ibn `Asaakir (15/78/2). Some of the Hanafis chose to do it, among them `Isaam bin Yusuf Abu `Asamah al-Balkhi (d. 210), a student of Imaam Abu Yusuf (rahimahullaah), as has been explained in the Introduction. `Abdullaah bin Ahmad reported from his father in his Masaa’il (p. 60), “It is related from `Uqbah bin `Aamir that he said about a man raising his hands during prayer, ‘He earns ten good deeds for each such movement’.” This is supported by the hadeeth qudsi, “… he who intends a good deed and then does it, Allaah writes it down with Himself as from ten to seven hundred good deeds”, transmitted by Bukhaari & Muslim. See Saheeh at-Targheeb, no. 16.23 ibid.

24 ibid.

25 Abu Daawood & Nasaa’i. Haakim declared it saheeh & Dhahabi agreed.

26Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

27Bukhaari & Muslim.

28 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

29Haakim , who declared it saheeh; Dhahabi & Tayaalisi agreed. It is given in Saheeh Abi Daawood (809).

30Ibn Khuzaimah & Ibn Hibbaan in their Saheehs.

31 Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, & Ibn Khuzaimah.

32Bukhaari, and Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

33Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer and Mu`jam al-Sagheer, `Abdullaah b. Ahmad in Zawaa’id al-Musnad & Ibn Maajah.

34Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad.

35Abu Daawood & Bukhaari in Juz’ al-Qiraa’ah with a saheeh isnaad.

36Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

37This vision was physically real, and was one of his miracles; it was confined to during prayer: there is no evidence for it being of a general nature.

38Bukhaari & Muslim.

39Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (340/3491/1), Aajuri in al-Arba`een, Baihaqi, Tabaraani (1/192/1), Diyaa’ in al-Muntaqaa (276/1), Ibn `Asaakir (2/226/2, 414/1, 8/14/1, 76/2) with a hasan isnaad, & Ibn Khuzaimah declared it saheeh (1/82/1). Ibn Battah has a supporting mursal narration for the first part of the hadeeth, minus the addition, in al-Ibaanah (5/43/1).

40Tayaalisi, Ahmad & Ibn Abi Shaibah; it is a hasan hadeeth, as I have explained in my footnotes on al-Ahkaam (1348) by `Abdul Haqq Ishbeeli.

41Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/89/2), Tabaraani & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

42Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/89/1), Ibn Maajah & Ahmad, with a saheeh isnaad.

43Abu `Awaanah, Abu Daawood & Sahmi (61); Daaraqutni declared it saheeh.

44Ahmad, Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Daaraqutni, Tahaawi, Bazzaar, & Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer, on the authority of seven Companions. Hence this refutes those who did not accept the specification of the glorifications to three times, such as Ibn al-Qayyim and others.

45This can be deduced from the ahaadeeth which make it clear that he (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) used to make his standing, rukoo` and sujood equal in length, as mentioned after this section.

46A saheeh hadeeth, transmitted by Abu Daawood, Daaraqutni, Ahmad, Tabaraani & Baihaqi .

47Abu Ishaaq said: subbooh means “the one who is free of any defect”, while quddoos means “the Blessed” or “the Pure”. Ibn Saidah said: Glorified and Blessed are attributes of Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, because He is glorified and sanctified by others. (Lisaan al-`Arab)

48Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

49Bukhaari & Muslim. “Implementing the Qur’aan” refers to the saying of Allaah: “Then glorify with the Praises of your Lord, and seek His Forgiveness, for He is Oft-Returning.” (Nasr 110:3)

50This is an example of use of a general phrase coming after mention of individual items.

51Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Tahaawi & Daaraqutni .

52Nasaa’i with a saheeh isnaad.

NOTE: Is there proof for combining two or more of these adhkaar in one rukoo`, or not ? The scholars have differed about this. Ibn al-Qayyim was uncertain about this in Zaad al-Ma`aad. Nawawi chose the first possibility in al-Adhkaar, saying, “It is best to combine all of these adhkaar if possible, and similarly with the adhkaar of other postures.” Abu al-Tayyib Siddeeq Hasan Khan disagreed with him, saying in Nuzul al-Abraar (84), “It is narrated with one of them here, another one there, but I see no evidence for combining. The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) would not combine them in one go, but he would say one of them sometimes, another one sometimes; to follow is better than to start something new.” This latter view is the correct one, Allaah willing, but it is proved in the Sunnah to lengthen this posture, as well as others, until it is about the length of the standing: hence, if the worshipper wishes to follow the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in this sunnah, the only way is to combine adhkaar, as Nawawi said, and as Ibn Nasr has related it in Qiyaam al-Layl (76) from Ibn Juraij as done by `Ataa’, or to repeat one of the adhkaar for which there is text for repetition, and this is closer to the Sunnah. Allaah knows best.

53Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (331).

54Muslim & Abu `Awaanah. The forbiddance is general, hence covering both obligatory and voluntary prayers. The addition in Ibn `Asaakir (17/299/1), “as for voluntary prayers, then there is no harm” is either shaaddh or munkar – Ibn `Asaakir pointed out a defect in it – so it is not permissible to act according to it.

55ibid.

56Bukhaari & Muslim.

57Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

58 Bukhaari & Abu Daawood; Ar. faqaar: vertebrae, “the bones making up the spine, from the base of the neck to the coccyx” according to Qaamoos; see also Fath al-Baari (2/308).

59Bukhaari & Ahmad.

60ibid.

61Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Ahmad & Abu Daawood.

*NB: This hadeeth does not prove that those following an imaam should not share with the imaam in saying: Allaah listens to the one who praises Him, just as it does not prove that the imaam does not share with those following him in saying: Our Lord, to You be all Praise. This is because the purpose of this hadeeth is not to set out exactly what the imaam and his followers should say in this position; rather, it explains that the followers’ tahmeed should be said after the imaam’s tasmee`. This is supported by the fact that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) used to say the tahmeed when he was the imaam, and also because the generality of his saying, “Pray as you have seen me praying”, dictates that the follower should say what the imaam says, e.g. tasmee`, etc. Those respected brothers who referred to us in this issue should consider this, and perhaps what we have mentioned is satisfactory. Whoever would like further discussion on this issue should refer to the article by the Haafiz Suyooti on this matter in his book al-Haawi lil Fataawi (1/529).

62Bukhaari & Muslim; Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

63Bukhaari & Muslim. The raising of the hands here is narrated in a mutawaatir way from the Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), and the majority of scholars have supported it, including some Hanafis. See the previous footnote under Rukoo`.

64ibid.

65ibid.

66Bukhaari & Ahmad. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) erred on this point in Zaad al-Ma`aad, rejecting the combination of “O Allaah!” with “and”, despite the fact that it is found in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Musnad Ahmad, in Nasaa’i & Ahmad again via two routes of narration from Abu Hurairah, in Daarimi as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar, in Baihaqi from Abu Sa`eed al-Khudri, & in Nasaa’i again as a hadeeth of Abu Musa al-Ash`ari .

67Bukhaari & Muslim; Tirmidhi declared it saheeh.

68Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

69ibid.

70 jadd: wealth, might, power; i.e., the one who has wealth, sons, might and power in this world will not benefit from them in front of You; his possessions will not save him from You: only righteous deeds will benefit or save anyone.

71Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

72Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Abu Daawood.

73Abu Daawood & Nasaa’i with a saheeh isnaad. It is given in Irwaa’ (335).

74Maalik, Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

75Bukhaari , Muslim & Ahmad. It is given in Irwaa’ (no. 307).

76Bukhaari & Muslim (first sentence only), Daarimi, Haakim, Shaafi`i & Ahmad. By ‘bones’ here is meant those of the spinal structure, the vertebrae, as has preceded in the main text.

*NB: The meaning of this hadeeth is clear and obvious: to be at ease in this standing. As for the usage of this hadeeth by our brothers from the Hijaaz and elsewhere as evidence to justify placing the right hand on the left in this standing, it is far-removed from the meaning of the multitude of narrations of this hadeeth. In fact it is a false argument, since the placing mentioned is not referred to with regard to the first standing in any of the narrations or wordings of the hadeeth; therefore, how can “the bones taking their proper places” mentioned in the hadeeth be interpreted as referring to the right hand taking hold of the left before rukoo`?! This would apply if all the versions of the hadeeth could be construed to mean this, so what about when they imply an obviously different meaning? In fact, this placing of theirs cannot be inferred from the hadeeth at all, since what is meant by “bones” is the bones of the spine, as confirmed by the Sunnah, “… he would stand straight until every vertebra returned to its place.”

I, for one, am in no doubt that to place the hands on the chest in this standing is an innovation and a leading astray, for it is not mentioned in any of the ahaadeeth about prayer, despite their large number. Had this practice any foundation, it would have reached us by at least one narration. Further, not one of the Salaf practised it, nor has a single leading scholar of hadeeth mentioned it, as far as I know.

This is not inconsistent with what Shaikh Tuwaijiri has quoted in his article (pp. 18-19) from Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaah), “if one wishes, he may leave his hands by his sides, or, if he wishes, he can place them on his chest”, for Imaam Ahmad did not attribute this to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), but said it from his own ijtihaad and opinion, and opinion can be erroneous. When authentic evidence establishes the innovatory nature of any practice, such as this one, then the saying of an imaam in its favour does not negate its being an innovation, as Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) has written. In fact, I see in these words of his, an indication that Imaam Ahmad did not regard the above-mentioned placing as being proved in the Sunnah, for he allowed a choice between practising it and leaving it! – Does the respected shaikh think that the Imaam also allowed a similar choice regarding placing the hands before rukoo`? Thus, it is proved that the placing of the hands on the chest in the standing after rukoo` is not part of the Sunnah. This is a brief discussion of this issue, which could be dealt with in more detail and depth, but due to lack of space here, that is done instead in my Refutation against Shaikh Tuwaijiri.

77Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer with a saheeh isnaad.

 

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS) Chapter 11 Footnotes

78Bukhaari & Muslim.

79Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

80Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (284/2) with a good isnaad & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/79/2) with a different, saheeh isnaad.

81Nasaa’i, Daaraqutni & Mukhlis in al-Fawaa’id (1/2/2) with two saheeh isnaads. This raising of the hands has been reported from ten Companions, and a number of the Salaf viewed it as correct, among them Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Hasan Basri, Taawoos, his son `Abdullaah, Naafi` the freed slave of Ibn `Umar, Saalim the son of Ibn `Umar, Qaasim bin Muhammad, `Abdullaah bin Deenaar & `Ataa’. Also, `Abdur Rahmaan bin Mahdi said, “This is from the Sunnah”, it was practised by the Imaam of the Sunnah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, and it has been quoted from Maalik & Shaafi`i .

82Ibn Khuzaimah (1/76/1), Daaraqutni & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. All the ahaadeeth which contradict this are inauthentic. This way has been endorsed by Maalik, and similar is reported from Ahmad in Ibn al-Jawzi’s al-Tahqeeq (108/2). Also, al-Marwazi quoted with a saheeh isnaad, Imam al-Awzaa`i in his Masaa’il (1/147/1) as saying, “I found the people placing their hands before their knees.”

83Abu Daawood, Tammaam in al-Fawaa’id, & Nasaa’i in Sunan as-Sughraa and Sunan al-Kubraa (47/1) with a saheeh isnaad. `Abdul Haqq declared it saheeh in al-Ahkaam (54/1), and went on to say in Kitaab al-Tahajjud (56/1), “it has a sounder isnaad than the previous one”, i.e. the hadeeth of Waa’il which is the other way round (knees before hands). In fact, the latter hadeeth, as well as being contradictory to this saheeh hadeeth and the preceding one, is neither authentic in isnaad nor in meaning, as I have explained in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah (no. 929) and al-Irwaa’ (357).

It should be known that the way to differ from the camel is to place the hands before the knees, because the camel places its knees first; a camel’s “knees” are in its forelegs, as defined in Lisaan al-`Arab and other books of the `Arabic language, and as mentioned by Tahaawi in Mushkil al-Aathaar and Sharh Ma`aani al-Aathaar. Also, Imaam Qaasim al-Saraqusti (rahimahullaah) narrated in Ghareeb al-Hadeeth (2/70/1-2), with a saheeh isnaad, Abu Hurairah’s statement, “No one should kneel the way a runaway camel does”, and then added, “This is in sajdah. He is saying that one should not throw oneself down, as a runaway (or untamed) camel does, hurriedly and without calmness, but he should go down calmly, placing his hands first, followed by his knees, and an explanatory marfoo` hadeeth has been narrated in this regard.” He then mentioned the hadeeth above.

As for Ibn al-Qayyim’s extremely strange statement, “These words are incomprehensible, and not understood by the experts of the language”, it is answered by the sources which we have mentioned, and also many others which can be consulted. I have also expanded on this in the refutation against Shaikh Tuwaijari, which may be published.

84Ibn Khuzaimah(1/79/2), Ahmad & Siraaj; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwaa’ (313).

85Abu Daawood & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

86Ibn Khuzaimah, Baihaqi & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

87Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/82/2) & Siraaj have related the pointing of the toes in a different narration.

88Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, as did Ibn al-Mulaqqin (27/2); it is given in Irwaa’ (309).

89Abu Daawood & Nasaa’i with a saheeh isnaad.

90Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, as did Ibn al-Mulaqqin (27/2) it is given in al-Irwaa, (309).

91 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with saheeh isnaad.

92Ibn Khuzaimah (1/10/1) with a hasan isnaad.

93Daaraqutni, Tabaraani (3/140/1) & Abu Nu`aim in Akhbaar Isbahaan.

94Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad. Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/82/2) & Siraaj have related the pointing of the toes in a different narration.

95Bukhaari & Abu Daawood. Ibn Sa`d (4/157) related from Ibn `Umar that he liked to point whatever of his body he could towards the qiblah when praying, even his thumbs.

96Tahaawi, Ibn Khuzaimah (no. 654) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

97Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

98Tirmidhi & Siraaj; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

99This movement of the hand was deduced from the grammar of the `Arabic text. (Fath al-Baari)

100i.e. to draw them in and prevent them from being scattered, meaning to gather the garment or hair with the hands for rukoo` and sujood. (Nihaayah). This forbiddance is not only during prayer; the majority of scholars include tucking in the hair and garments before prayer in the prohibition. This is further strengthened by his forbidding men to pray with their hair tied, which follows later.

101Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in al-Irwaa’ (310).

102Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ibn Hibbaan.

103i.e. tied up or plaited.

104Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ibn Hibbaan. Ibn al-Atheer says, “The meaning of this hadeeth is that were his hair loose, it would fall on the ground when in sajdah; hence, the man would be rewarded for the prostration of the hair. However, if the hair is tied, it is effectively as though it did not prostrate, for he compared him to someone whose hands are shackled together, since they would then not lie on the ground in sajdah.”

It would seem that this instruction is limited to men and does not apply to women, as Shawkaani has quoted from Ibn al-`Arabi.

105Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it hasan; Ibn Khuzaimah & Ibn Hibbaan declared it saheeh. See Saheeh Abi Daawood (653).

106Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

107Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa’ (359).

108Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ibn Hibbaan.

109Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah with a hasan isnaad.

110Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

111Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu Daawood & Ahmad.

112Ahmad & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

113Ibn Khuzaimah (1/80/2), al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtaarah & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

114Ahmad, Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Daaraqutni, Tahaawi, Bazzaar, & Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer on the authority of seven different Companions. See also the note on this dhikr under “Rukoo`”.

115See the previous note on this under “Rukoo`”also.

116Saheeh, transmitted by Abu Daawood, Daaraqutni, Ahmad, Tabaraani & Baihaqi.

117Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

118Bukhaari & Muslim.

119Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Tahaawi & Daaraqutni.

120Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

121Ibn Nasr, Bazzaar & Haakim, who declared it saheeh but Dhahabi disagreed, however, it has a support which is mentioned in the manuscript version.

122Abu Daawood & Nasaa’i, with a saheeh isnaad.

123Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Nasaa’i & Ibn Nasr.

124Ibn Abi Shaibah (62/112/1) & Nasaa’i ; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

125Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/106/2, 112/1).

126ibid.

127Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Baihaqi . It is given in Irwaa’ (456).

128Nasaa’i, Ibn `Asaakir (4/257/1-2) & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

129Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh, with a hasan isnaad from Ibn Mas’ood (887) & Baihaqi in mursal form. Ibn Khuzaimah prefixed it with, “Chapter: evidence that gesturing which is understood during prayer neither invalidates nor spoils the prayer” – this action is one which the People of Opinion have prohibited! In this regard, there are also ahaadeeth in Bukhaari, Muslim and others.

130i.e. its colour is pure black, with no other colours mixed with it. (Nihaayah)

131the whiteness refers to that part of the horse where chains and bangles are put, including the lower legs but not the knees.

132i.e. the shining of the face due to the light of sujood.

133i.e. the shining of the parts covered in ablution: the face, hands and feet. The shining marks of ablution on the face, hands and legs of humans is compared to the whiteness of a horse’s face and legs.

134Ahmad, with a saheeh isnaad. Tirmidhi related a part of it and declared it saheeh. It is given in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah.

135Bukhaari & Muslim; the hadeeth shows that the sinful from among those regular at Prayer, will not remain the Fire forever; in fact, even those given to missing prayers out of laziness will not remain in the Fire forever, this is authentic – see as-Saheehah (2054).

136 Ar. haseer: a mat made of date-palm leaves or straw, etc.

137This was because his mosque was not covcered with mats, etc. This is evident from a great many ahaadeeth, such as the next one and the one of Abu Sa`eed later.

138Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

139Ahmad, Siraaj & Baihaqi, with a saheeh isnaad.

140Bukhaari & Muslim.

141ibid. A khumrah is a piece of matting, palm-fibre, or other material which is big enough for a man to place his face on it in sajdah; the term does not apply to larger pieces.

142ibid.

143Muslim & Abu `Awaanah. Ar. labisa usually means ‘to wear’, but here it is used to mean ‘to use’, i.e. to sit on; hence ‘wearing’ includes ‘sitting on’, so this indicates that it is prohibited (haraam) to sit on silk, because of the prohibition on wearing it established in the Saheehs of Bukhaari and Muslim, and others. In fact, a clear forbiddance of sitting on silk is related in these, so do not be confused by the fact that some leading scholars allow it.

144Bukhaari & Muslim.

145Abu Daawood & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

146Bukhaari in his Juz’ Raf` al-Yadain, Abu Daawood with a saheeh isnaad, Muslim & Abu `Awaanah. It is given in Irwaa’ (316).

To raise the hands here, and with every takbeer, was a view voiced by Ahmad, as in Ibn al-Qayyim’s Badaa’i` (3/89): “Athram quoted from him (Imaam Ahmad) that on being asked about raising the hands, he said: With every movement down and up. Athram said: I saw Abu `Abdullaah (i.e. Imaam Ahmad) raising his hands in prayer with every movement down and up.”

This was also the opinion of Ibn al-Mundhir & Abu `Ali of the Shaafi`is, and also a view of Maalik and Shaafi`i themselves, as in Tarh at-Tathreeb. The raising of the hands here is also authentically-reported from Anas bin Maalik, Ibn `Umar, Naafi`, Taawoos, Hasan Basri, Ibn Seereen & Ayyoob as-Sikhtiaani, as in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/106) with saheeh narrations from them.

147Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a good isnaad.

148Bukhaari & Baihaqi .

149Nasaa’i with a saheeh isnaad.

150Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Abu Shaikh in Maa Rawaahu Abu az-Zubair `an Ghair Jaabir (nos. 104-6) & Baihaqi .

151ibid. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) overlooked this, so after mentioning the Prophet’s (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) iftiraash between the two sajdahs, he said, “No other way of sitting here is preserved from him” ! How can this be correct, when iq`aa’ has reached us via: the hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas in Muslim, Abu Daawood & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh, and others (see Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah 383); the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar with a hasan isnaad in Baihaqi, declared saheeh by Ibn Hajar. Also, Abu Ishaaq al-Harbi related in Ghareeb al-Hadeeth (5/12/1) from Taawoos, who saw Ibn `Umar and Ibn `Abbaas practising iq`aa’; its sanad is saheeh. May Allaah shower His Mercy on Imaam Maalik, who said, “Every one of us can refute and be refuted, except the occupant of this grave”, and he pointed to the grave of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam). This sunnah was practised by several Companions, Successors and others, and I have expanded on this in al-Asl.

Of course, this iq`aa’ is different to the one which is forbidden, and follows under “Tashahhud”.

152Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh isnaad.

153Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

154Bukhaari & Muslim.

155ibid. Ibn al-Qayyim said, “This sunnah was abandoned by the people after the time of the Companions. But as for the one who abides by the Sunnah, and does not glance sideways towards whatever contradicts it, he is unworried by anything opposing this guidance.”

156Abu Daawood, Tirmidhi, Ibn Maajah & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

157Ibn Maajah with a hasan sanad. Imaam Ahmad chose to supplicate with this one; Ishaaq bin Raahawaih said, “If he wishes, he can say this three times, or he can say O Allaah! Forgive me …, because both of them have been reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) between the two sajdahs.” (Masaa’il of Imaam Ahmad & Ishaaq bin Raahawaih as related by Ishaaq al-Marwazi, p. 19).

158This does not negate the validity of the expressions in the obligatory prayers due to the absence of anything to differentiate between those and voluntary prayers. This is the view of Shaafi`i, Ahmad & Ishaaq, who held that this was allowed in compulsory and voluntary prayers, as Tirmidhi has narrated. Imaam Tahaawi has also taken this view in Mushkil al-Aathaar. Proper analysis supports this argument, for there is no position in prayer where a dhikr is not valid, and so it is fitting that this should be the case here.

159Bukhaari & Muslim.

160Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed; the addition is from Bukhaari & Muslim.

161Abu `Awaanah & Abu Daawood with two saheeh sanads. this raising of the hands has supported by Ahmad, Maalik & Shaafi`i in narrations from them. See the previous note under Sujood.

162Bukhaari & Muslim.

163Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

164Ahmad & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

165 see the fourth last note.

166Bukhaari & Abu Daawood. This sitting is known as jalsah al-istiraahah (the sitting of rest) by the scholars of fiqh. Shaafi`i supported it, as did Ahmad in Tahqeeq (111/1) and favoured it more strongly, as is well-known of him that he would insist on following a sunnah which had nothing to contradict it. Ibn Haani said in his Masaa’il of Imaam Ahmad (p. 42), “I saw Abu `Abdullaah (i.e. Imaam Ahmad) sometimes leaning on his hands when standing up for the next rak`ah, and sometimes sitting straight and then getting up.” It was also the preference of Imaam Ishaaq bin Raahawaih, who said in Marwazi’s Masaa’il (1/147/2), “The example was set by the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) of supporting himself with his hands when getting up, whether he was old or young.” See also Irwaa’ (2/82-3).

167Bukhaari & Shaafi`i .

168literally, “as one who kneads dough”.

169Abu Ishaaq al-Harbi with a faultless sanad, and its meaning is found in Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad. As for the hadeeth, “He used to get up like an arrow, not supporting himself with his hands”, it is mawdoo` (fabricated), and all narrations of similar meaning are weak, not authentic, and I have explained this in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah (562, 929, 968).

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS) Chapter 12 Footnotes

170Muslim & Abu `Awaanah. The pause negated in this hadeeth could be a pause for reciting an opening supplication, and not include a pause for reciting the isti`aadhah, or it could be wider in meaning than that; I find the former possibility more convincing. There are two views among the scholars regarding the isti`aadhah, and we regard the correct one as being that it is to be said in every rak`ah; the details of all this are given in al-Asl.

171Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a strong sanad.

172Bukhaari & Muslim.

173Ahmad with a good isnaad.

174Ibn Maajah, Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh & Ahmad in Ibn Haani’s Masaa’il (1/52). Jaabir bin `Abdullaah (radi Allaahu `anhu) said, “He who prays a rak`ah in which he does not recite the Mother of the Qur’aan has not prayed, except behind an imaam” – related by Maalik in Muwatta’.

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS) Chapter 13 Footnotes

175Nasaa’i (1/173) with a saheeh isnaad.

176Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

177Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a good sanad.

178Tayaalisi, Ahmad & Ibn Abi Shaibah. About iq`aa’, Abu `Ubaidah and others said, “It is when a man presses his buttocks against the ground, keeps his shins upright, and leans his hands on the ground, the way a dog does.” This is different to the iq`aa’ between sajdahs, which is approved in the Sunnah, as covered previously.

179Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & others. It is given in Irwaa’ (316).

180Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

181Abu Daawood & Nasaa’i with a saheeh sanad. It is as though the meaning is that he would not separate his elbows from his side, as Ibn al-Qayyim has elucidated in Zaad al-Ma`aad.

182Baihaqi & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. It is given, as well as the next one, in Irwaa’ (380).

183Ahmad & Abu Daawood with a good isnaad.

184`Abdur Razzaaq; `Abdul Haqq declared it saheeh in his Ahkaam (no. 1284 – with my checking).

185Muslim, Abu `Awaanah & Ibn Khuzaimah. Humaidi (13/1) and Abu Ya`laa (275/2) added with a saheeh sanad on the authority of Ibn `Umar: “and this is the shooting of the devil; no-one will forget when he does this”, and Humaidi raised his finger. Humaidi also said that Muslim bin Abi Maryam said, “A man related to me that in a church in Syria, he saw images of Prophets depicted like this”, and Humaidi raised his finger. This is an extremely strange remark, but its sanad up to “the man” is saheeh.

186Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

187Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i, Ibn al-Jaarood in al-Muntaqaa (208), Ibn Khuzaimah (1/86/1-2) & Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (485) with a saheeh sanad. Ibn al-Mulaqqin also declared it saheeh (28/2), and it has a supporting narration in Ibn `Adi (287/1).

188ibid. About “supplicating with it”, Imaam Tahaawi said, “This is evidence that it was at the end of the prayer.” Hence, there is evidence in this that the Sunnah is to continue pointing and moving the finger until the tasleem, for the supplication is until then. This is the view of Maalik and others. Imaam Ahmad was asked, “Should a man point with his finger during prayer?” He replied, “Yes, vigorously.” (Mentioned by Ibn Haani in his Masaa’il of Imaam Ahmad, 1/80). From this, it is clear that moving the finger in tashahhud is a proven sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), and it was practised by Ahmad and other imaams of the Sunnah. Therefore, those who think that it is pointless and irrelevant and has nothing to do with the Prayer, should fear Allaah, since because of this, they do not move their fingers although they know it to be an established sunnah; and they take great pains to interpret it in a way which is inconsistent with the `Arabic way of expression and contrary to the understanding of the imaams with regard to it.

The amazing thing is that some of them will defend an imaam on other issues, even if his opinion conflicts with the Sunnah, with the argument that to point out the imaam’s mistakes inevitably means to taunt and disrespect him. They then forget this and reject this established sunnah, at the same time mocking at those who practise it. Whether or not they realise it, their mockery also includes those imaams whom they often defend wrongly, and who are correct about the Sunnah this time! In fact, they are deriding the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) himself, for he is the one who brought us this sunnah, and so jeering at it is equivalent to jeering at him. << But what is the reward for those among you who behave like this except … >>

As for putting the finger down after pointing, or limiting the movement to the affirmation (saying laa ilaaha: ‘there is no god …’) and negation (saying: illallaahu: ‘… except Allaah’), all of that has no basis in the Sunnah; in fact, it is contrary to the Sunnah, as this hadeeth proves.

Further, the hadeeth that he would not move his finger does not have an authentic isnaad, as I have explained in Da`eef Abi Daawood (175). Even if it were authentic, it is negatory, while the hadeeth above is affirmatory: the affirmatory takes precedence over the negatory, as is well-known among the scholars.

189Ahmad, Bazzaar, Abu Ja`far al-Bukhteeri in al-Amaali (60/1), `Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (12/2) with a hasan sanad, Rooyaani in his Musnad (249/2) & Baihaqi .

190Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/123/2) with a hasan sanad.

191Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/40/1, 2/123/2) & Nasaa’i . Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed, and there is a supporting narration for it in Ibn Abi Shaibah.

192Nasaa’i & Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad.

193Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

194Baihaqi transmitted it as a narration from `Aa’ishah with a good isnaad, as verified by Ibn al-Mulaqqin (28/2).

195Bukhaari & Muslim. It is given in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (338).

196Nasaa’i, Ahmad & Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer (3/25/1) with a saheeh sanad. The literal meaning of the hadeeth is evidence for the validity of supplication in every tashahhud, even the one not adjacent to the tasleem, and this is the view of Ibn Hazm (rahimahullaah).

197Nasaa’i with a saheeh sanad.

198Bukhaari & Muslim.

199Abu Daawood & Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

200Ar. tahiyyaat, i.e. “all words which imply peace, sovereignty and eternity, are due to Allaah.” (Nihaayah)

201Ar. salawaat, i.e. “all supplications which are used to glorigy the majesty of Allaah, for He is fully entitled to them, and none but Him is worthy of them.” (Nihaayah)

202Ar. tayyibaat, i.e. “all good and pure words suitable for praising Allaah, not those ones incompatible with his attributes with which kings were greeted.” (Fath al-Baari)

203meaning seeking of refuge with Allaah and being strengthened by him, since as-Salaam (Peace) is actually a name of Allaah. Hence, the greeting effectively means: Allaah be a watcher and safeguard over you. Similarly, it is said, “Allaah be with you”, i.e. in His safeguarding, help and favour.

204A term for all the good continuously emanating from Allaah.

205Bukhaari, Muslim, Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/90/2), Siraaj & Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (258/2). It is given in Irwaa’ (321).

Ibn Mas`ood’s statement, “We said: Peace be on the Prophet” clarifies that the Companions (radi Allaahu `anhum) used to say, “Peace be on you, O Prophet” in tashahhud while the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) was alive, but when he died, they ceased to do that, instead saying, “Peace be on the Prophet”. Undoubtedly, this was with the endorsement of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam); this is supported by the fact that `Aa’ishah (radi Allaahu `anhaa) would similarly teach the tashahhud in prayer with “Peace be on the Prophet”, as transmitted by Siraaj in his Musnad (9/1/2) & Mukhlis in al-Fawaa’id (11/54/1) with two saheeh isnaads from her.

Ibn Hajar says, “This addition shows clearly that they used to say ‘Peace be on you, O Prophet’, addressing him directly during his life, but when the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) died, they stopped addressing him and mentioned him in the third person instead, saying ‘Peace be on the Prophet’.” He also says in a different place, “Subki said in Sharh al-Minhaaj, after mentioning this narration from Abu `Awaanah only, ‘If this is authentically-reported from the Companions, it proves that after his time, it is not compulsory to address the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) directly in the greeting of peace, so one says: Peace be on the Prophet.’ (Ibn Hajar continues:) This is authentic without doubt (i.e. because it is established in Sahih al-Bukhaari ), and I have also found strong support for it:- `Abdur Razzaaq said: Ibn Juraij informed me: `Ataa’ informed me that the Companions used to say ‘Peace be on you, O Prophet’ while the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) was alive, but after he died, they would say ‘Peace be on the Prophet’, and this is a saheeh isnaad. As for Sa`eed bin Mansoor’s narration from Abu `Ubaidah bin `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood, who reported from his father that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) taught them the tashahhud, and then he (`Abdullaah bin Mas`ood) said it (the tashahhud); Ibn `Abbaas said: We used to say ‘Peace be on you, O Prophet’ only while he was alive, to which Ibn Mas`ood replied, ‘This is how we were taught, and this is how we teach it’, it would appear that Ibn `Abbaas said this as a matter of discussion but Ibn Mas`ood did not accept. However, the narration of Abu Ma`mar (i.e. the narration of Bukhaari ) is more authentic, since Abu `Ubaidah did not hear (ahaadeeth) from his father, and furthermore, the isnaad up to Abu `Ubaidah is weak.” (End of quote from Ibn Hajar)

These words of Ibn Hajar have been quoted by several scholars in their analysis, e.g. Qastalaani, Zarqaani, Lucknowi, etc. They all chose to give his words without commenting further. This discussion is treated more fully in al-Asl.

206Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Shaafi`i & Nasaa’i .

207see next note.

208These two additions have been proved to be part of the tashahhud from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam). Ibn `Umar did not add them of his own accord (far is he above such a thing! ); in fact, he learnt them from other Companions who reported them from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), and he then added them to the tashahhud which he heard from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) directly.

209Abu Daawood & Daaraqutni, who declared it saheeh.

210Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Abu Daawood & Ibn Maajah.

211Maalik & Baihaqi with saheeh isnaads. Although this hadeeth is mawqoof, it is effectively marfoo`, for it is known that this sort of thing is not said from personal opinion, since it were so, it would be no better than any other sayings of dhikr, as Ibn `Abdul Barr has said.

*NB: In none of the types of tashahhud is there the addition: wa maghfiratuhu (… “and His forgiveness”), so one should not be accustomed to it. Hence some of the Salaf rebuked it, as the following narrations show:

Tabaraani (3/56/1) reported with a saheeh isnaad from Talhah bin Musarrif, who said: Rabee` bin Khaitham added during tashahhud, “… and His blessings, and His forgiveness”! So `Alqamah said, “We stop where we were taught: Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and also the mercy of Allaah and His blessings”; `Alqamah was actually following the example of his teacher `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood (radi Allaahu `anhu), from whom it is authentically-reported that he was teaching a man the tashahhud: when he got to “I bear witness that there is no (true) god except Allaah …”, the man said: “alone, He has no partner”, to which `Abdullaah said, “He is so, but we stop at where we were taught.” (Transmitted by Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Awsat, no. 2848, with a saheeh isnaad.)

212Abu `Awaanah in his Saheeh (2/324) & Nasaa’i .

213They had said, “O Messenger of Allaah, we have been taught how to send peace on you (i.e. in tashahhud), but how do we send prayers on you? He said, “Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad …” etc. Thus he did not specify one tashahhud to the exclusion of another, so there is evidence here to establish sending prayers on him in the first tashahhud also. This is the way of Imaam Shaafi`i, as in the text of his book al-Umm, and it is held to be correct by his companions, as Nawawi has explained in al-Majmoo` (3/460) and supported in Rawdah Taalibeen (1/263). It is also the view of Wazeer bin Hubairah al-Hanbali in al-Ifsaah, as Ibn Rajab ha quoted and strongly supported in Dhail Tabaqaat (1/280). Many ahaadeeth exist about sending prayers on him (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in tashahhud; in none of them is there any such specification mentioned. In fact, these ahaadeeth are general, hence including every tashahhud, and I have given them in al-Asl as ta`leeq, but not in the main text, for they do not satisfy our conditions for authenticity. However, they do support each other in meaning, and those who reject and oppose this have no authentic evidence to use as proof, as I have detailed in al-Asl. Similarly, to say that adding anything to “O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad” is makrooh has no basis in the Sunnah, nor is there any convincing proof for it. In fact, we see that whoever says this does not implement the previous instruction of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), “Say: O Allaah! send prayers on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad …” ; there is more to this discussion in al-Asl.

214One of the earliest views about the meaning of “sending prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam)” is that of Abu al-`Aaliyah (with reference to Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:56), “Allaah’s sending prayers on his Prophet means His exalting him and raising his rank; the angels’ and others’ sending prayers means their seeking this from Allaah, and here it is meant asking the prayers to be increased, not asking for the original prayer in itself.” Ibn Hajar quoted this in Fath al-Baari, and went on to refute the widespread notion that the Lord’s prayer on someone is His Mercy; Ibn al-Qayyim also clarified this in Jalaa’ al-Afhaam, leaving little scope for further comment.

215from barakah: growth, increase. Hence this supplication secures for Muhammad the good which Allaah granted to the family of Ibraaheem, continual, established good, as well as its multiplying and increase.

216Ahmad & Tahaawi with a saheeh sanad.

217see next note.

218These two additions are conclusively found in Bukhaari, Tahaawi, Baihaqi, Ahmad & Nasaa’i . They also exist via different routes of narration in other types of this supplication (see nos. 3,7), and so do not be confused by Ibn al-Qayyim’s view in Jalaa’ al-Afhaam (p. 198), following in the footsteps of his great teacher Ibn Taymiyyah in al-Fataawaa (1/16), “There is no authentic hadeeth with the phrases ‘Ibraaheem’ and ‘the family of Ibraaheem’ together”; here, we have shown you such authentic ahaadeeth. Ibn al-Qayyim’s error is further established by the fact that he himself declared no. 7 saheeh, which contains what he denied above!

219Bukhaari, Muslim, Humaidi (138/1) & Ibn Mandah (68/2), who said, “There is consensus on this hadeeth being authentic.”

220Ahmad, Nasaa’i & Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (44/2) with a saheeh sanad.

221Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Ibn Abi Shaibah (2/132/1) & Abu Daawood; Haakim declared it saheeh.

222Bukhaari, Nasaa’i, Tahaawi, Ahmad & Ismaa`eel al-Qaadi in Fadl as-Salaah `alaa Nabi sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam (p. 28 1st ed., p. 62 2nd ed. with my checking).

223Bukhaari, Muslim & Nasaa’i.

224Nasaa’i, Tahaawi, Abu Sa`eed bin al-`Arabi in al-Mu`jam (79/2) with a saheeh sanad. Ibn al-Qayyim gave its source as Muhammad bin Ishaaq as-Siraaj in Jalaa’ al-Afhaam (pp. 14-15) and then declared it saheeh. This wording includes both ‘Ibraaheem’ and ‘the family of Ibraaheem’, something overlooked by both Ibn al-Qayyim & his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah, as explained above.

225 Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad.

226 a famous grammarian and scholar of the `Arabic language of the second century AH.

227which is preserved in the Zaahiriyyah Library in Damascus.

228 Nasaa’i, Ahmad & Tabaraani with various isnaads from Ibn Mas`ood – the details are given in as-Saheehah (878) – and there is a supporting hadeeth of Ibn az-Zubair in Majma` az-Zawaa’id (2/142).

229Bukhaari & Muslim.

230Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (284/2) with a good isnaad. It is given in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (604).

231Bukhaari & Abu Daawood.

232ibid.

233Abu `Awaanah & Nasaa’i with a saheeh sanad.

234literally, “as one who kneads dough.”

235Harbi in Ghareeb al-Hadeeth; its meaning is found in Bukhaari and Abu Daawood. As for the hadeeth, he forbade that a man should support himself with his hand when getting up during prayer”, it is munkar and not authentic, as I have explained in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da`eefah (967).

236Qunoot: carries several meanings, e.g. humility, devotion. What is meant here is the special supplication while standing during prayer.

237Bukhaari & Ahmad.

238ibid.

239Ahmad & Tabaraani with a saheeh sanad. To raise the hands in qunoot is the madhhab of Ahmad and also Ishaaq bin Raahawaih, cf. Marwazi’s Masaa’il (p. 23). As for wiping the face with the hands, it is not reported in this position, and is thus an innovation; as for outside of prayer, it is not authentically-reported: all that has been transmitted in this regard is either weak or very weak, as I have shown in Da`eef Abi Daawood (262) & Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (597). This is why `Izz bin `Abd as-Salaam said in one of his fatwas, “Only an ignorant person does it.” See Appendix 8.

240Abu Daawood & Siraaj ; Haakim declared it saheeh, and Dhahabi & others agreed.

241Abu Daawood, Siraaj & Daaraqutni with two hasan sanads.

242Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1/78/2) & Khateeb in Kitaab al-Qunoot with a saheeh sanad.

243Bukhaari & Ahmad; the addition is in Muslim.

244Nasaa’i, Ahmad, Siraaj (109/1) & Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad with a good sanad.

245Ibn Nasr & Daaraqutni with a saheeh sanad.

246We have said, “… sometimes” because the Companions who narrated the Witr prayer did not mention the qunoot in it, whereas had the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) done so always, they would have all mentioned it. However, Ubayy ibn Ka`b alone narrated the qunoot in Witr, so this shows that he used to do it sometimes. Hence, this is evidence that qunoot in Witr is not obligatory (waajib), and this is the opinion of the majority of scholars. For this reason, the researching Hanafi scholar, Ibn al-Humaam, recognised in Fath al-Qadeer (1/306,359,360) that the view of it being obligatory is feeble and not substantiated by evidence. This shows his fairness and lack of party-spirit, for this view which he has supported is contrary to his madhhab !

247Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/41/1), Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i in Sunan al-Kubraa (218/1-2), Ahmad, Tabaraani, Baihaqi & Ibn `Asaakir (4/244/2) narrated this, along with the supplication after it, with a saheeh sanad. Ibn Mandah narrated the supplication only in Tawheed (70/2) with a different, hasan sanad. Its takhreej is also given in Irwaa’ (426).

248Ibn Khuzaimah (1/119/2) & also Ibn Abi Shaibah etc., as for the last hadeeth.

*NB: Nasaa’i adds at the end of the qunoot: wa sall-Allaahu `ala-n-Nabiyy al-Ummiyy (“may Allaah send prayers on the Unlettered Prophet”), related with a weak isnaad; among those who declared it da`eef are Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalaani & Zurqaani. Therefore, we have not included it in our system of combining acceptable narrations. `Izz bin `Abd as-Salaam said in al-Fataawaa (66/1,1962), “To send prayers on the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in qunoot is not authentic, nor is it fitting to add to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam)’s prayer in any way.” This view of his shows that he did not widen the argument by including the idea of bid`ah hasanah (“good” innovation), as some of the later scholars are prone to doing !

However, it is proved in the hadeeth about Ubayy bin Ka`b leading the people during the Ramadaan night prayers that he used to send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) at the end of the qunoot, and that was during the reign of `Umar (radi Allaahu `anhu) – transmitted by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Saheeh (1097). Similarly is proved from Abu Haleemah Mu`aadh al-Ansaari, who also used to lead them during `Umar’s rule – transmitted by Ismaa`eel al-Qaadi (no. 107) & others, so this addition is justified by the practice of the Salaf, and it is thus not fitting to categorically state that this addition is an innovation. Allaah knows best.

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS) Chapter 14 Footnotes

249Bukhaari .

250ibid. As for two-rak`ah prayers such as Fajr, the Sunnah is to sit muftarishan. This difference in detail is documented from Imaam Ahmad, cf. Ibn Hani’s Masaa’il of Imaam Ahmad (p. 79).

251Abu Daawood & Baihaqi with a saheeh sanad.

252Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

253ibid.

254ibid.

255Ahmad, Abu Daawood, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/83/2) & al-Haakim , who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

It should be known that this hadeeth proves that salaah (sending prayers) on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in this tashahhud is obligatory, due to the command about it. This opinion was taken by Imaam Shaafi`i and by Imaam Ahmad in the later of the two narrations from him, and before them by several Companions, as well as other people of knowledge. Because of this, Aajuri said in Sharee`ah (p. 415): “He who does not send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in the final tashahhud must repeat the prayer.” Hence, those who label Imaam Shaafi`i as being alone and odd in his opinion on this, are not being just, as the faqeeh Haitami has explained in Darr al-Mandood (sections 13-16).

256Nasaa’i with a saheeh sanad.

257Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Nasaa’i & Ibn al-Jaarood in al-Muntaqaa (27). It is given in Irwaa’ (350).

258Abu Daawood & Ahmad with a saheeh sanad.

259Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

260We have not said, “… in his tashahhud” because the text is “… in his prayer”, not specifying either tashahhud or anything else. Hence, it covers all positions suitable for supplication, e.g. prostration and tashahhud; the instruction to supplicate in these two postures has been mentioned.

261Bukhaari & Muslim. Athram said, “I asked Ahmad: ‘With what (words) should I supplicate after tashahhud ?’ He said, ‘As has been narrated.’ I said, ‘Didn’t the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) say, “Then he should select whichever supplication he likes” ?’ He said, ‘He should select out of what has been narrated.’ I repeated the question: he said, ‘From what has been narrated’.” This was quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah (Majmoo` al-Fataawaa 69/218/1), who endorsed it, adding, “Hence, ‘whichever supplication’ refers to the supplications which Allaah loves, not to any supplication …”; later he said, “Hence, it is best to say: (one should supplicate) with the approved, established supplications, and these are what have ben narrated and those that are beneficial.” This is so, but to recognise which supplications are indeed beneficial depends on authentic knowledge, and this is rarely found among the people, so it is best to stick to the supplications quoted, especially when they include what the worshipper wishes to request. Allaah knows best.

262ma’tham: what causes a man to sin, or the sin itself.

263maghram: burden; here it means debt, as proved by the rest of the hadeeth, in which `Aa’ishah said, “Someone said to him, `Why do you seek refuge from maghram, so often, O Messenger of Allaah ?’ He replied, Truly, when a man becomes indebted, he speaks and lies, and he promises and breaks his promise.

264Bukhaari & Muslim.

265i.e. from the evil of the bad actions I have done, and from the evil of not doing good actions.

266Nasaa’i with a saheeh sanad & Ibn Abi `Aasim in his as-Sunnah (no. 370 – with my checking); the addition is from the latter.

267Ahmad & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

268Nasaa’i & al-Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

269Bukhaari & Muslim.

270Ahmad, Tayaalisi, Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Maajah & Haakim who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. I have given its takhreej in Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (1542).

271dandanah: to speak such the intonation is audible, but the words are incomprehensible – in the case, the quiet words of supplication. The final statement means, “Our words are like yours.”

272Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/87/1) with a saheeh isnaad.

273Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i, Ahmad & Ibn Khuzaimah; Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.

274This is tawassul (a seeking of approach) to Allaah through His most beautiful names and attributes, and this is what Allaah the Exalted commands: “To Allaah belong the most beautiful names, so call on Him by them.” (A`raaf 7:180). As for seeking to approaching Allaah through other things, e.g. for so-and-so’s sake, or by so-and-so’s right, status, dignity, etc., there is text from Imaam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) and his companions that such a practice is at least disliked (makrooh); in general it is prohibited (haraam). Therefore, it is a pity that one sees most of the people, among them many shaikhs, totally neglecting the approved tawassul, – you will never hear them approaching Allaah this way – but they are well-versed in innovated forms of tawassul, which are at the very least debatable, as though no other way is allowed! Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah has composed an extremely good essay on this subject entitled Tawassul and Waseelah (“Approaching Allaah, and the Means of doing so”), which should be consulted, for it is very important, and there is little to compare with it in its coverage. There is also my article Tawassul – its types and its rules, which is also important in its subject-matter and format, and also refutes some of the latest misconceptions advanced by contemporary doctors of religion. May Allaah guide us and them.

275Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i, Ahmad, Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Tabaraani & Ibn Mandah in Tawheed (44/2, 67/1, 70/1-2) with saheeh isnaads.

276Muslim & Abu `Awaanah.

The Prophet’s Prayer (SAWS) Chapter 15 Footnotes

277Abu Daawood, Nasaa’i & Tirmidhi, who declared it saheeh.

278Abu Daawood & Ibn Khuzaimah (1/87/2) with a saheeh sanad. `Abdul Haqq also declared it saheeh in his Ahkaam (56/2), as did Nawawi & Ibn Hajar. It was also transmitted via another route by `Abdur Razzaaq in his Musannaf (2/219), Abu Ya`laa in his Musnad (3/1253), Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Kabeer (3/67/2) and Mu`jam al-Awsat (no. 4476 – my numbering) & Daaraqutni .

279Nasaa’i, Ahmad & Siraaj with a saheeh sanad.

280Ibn Khuzaimah, Baihaqi, Diyaa’ in al-Mukhtaarah & `Abdul Ghani al-Maqdisi in his Sunan (243/1) with a saheeh isnaad; Ahmad, Tabaraani in Mu`jam al-Awsat (32/2), Baihaqi, Ibn al-Mulaqqin (29/1) and Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. Its takhreej is given in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel under hadeeth no. 327.

281Muslim, Abu `Awaanah, Siraaj, Ibn Khuzaimah & Tabaraani.

*NB: The Ibaadiyyah have distorted this hadeeth: their scholar Rabee` has related it in his unreliable Musnad with a different wording to justify their view that raising the hands with takbeer invalidates the Prayer! That wording is false, as I have explained in ad-Da`eefah (6044).

282Haakim & Dhahabi declared it saheeh; it has already been given in full under the opening “Takbeer”.

283 The first supplication is the fullest form of the du`aa’ known as kaffaarah al-majlis (expiation of the gathering); “he who says it in a gathering of Remembrance (of Allaah), it will be like a seal to stamp it with, and he who says it in a gathering of vain talk, it will be an expiation for it” – authentically related by Haakim and Tabaraan. The second supplication is, of course, from the Sunnah of sending peace and mercy on the Messenger. These two supplications are thus the best way of implementing the following Islamic guideline: “No people sit in a gathering in which they do not mention Allaah, nor send prayers on the Prophet, without it being a source of regret for them; if Allaah wishes, He will punish them, or if He wishes, he will forgive them” – authentically related by Tirmidhi, Haakim & Ahmad. See Shaykh Albaani’s Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (74-81) for details.

 

 

Sifat Wudoo’-in-Nabee (SAW)
The method of performing wudoo

Introduction

Preface

Verily all praise is for Allaah, we praise Him and seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek refuge with Allaah from the evils of ourselves and our evil actions. Whomever Allaah guides there is none who can misguide him, and whomever Allaah misguides there is none who can guide him, and I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, having no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Rabb (Creator, Master, Owner of All-Things), Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both, He created many men and women and, and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights). and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you. [Sooratun-Nisaa’: Ayat 1]

O You who Believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that he has forbidden) as He should be feared. [Obey Him, be thankful to Him. and remember Him always] And do not die except in a state of Islam (as Muslims) with complete submission to Allah. [Sooratul-‘Imraan ayah: Ayat 102]

O You who Believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you of your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (saws) he has indeed a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-Fire and made to enter Paradise). [Sooratul-Ahzaab: Ayat 70-71]

As for what follows: Verily the most truthful speech is the Word of Allaah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and the worst of affairs are the novelties and every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray and every going astray is in the Fire.

I desired to write this as a completion for the treatises which are in circulation amongst the people today – about the different fields – especially of worship such as Prayer and Fasting, etc. – which have made easier that which is difficult as regards religious rulings and being guided thereby, as it maybe difficult these days for some to read, research and extract these rulings from their places within the source books – either because of the ignorance of the Muslims or laziness or other worldly problems. I sincerely advise all the Muslims to read and research until they come to know and understand their true Deen – and I wished to write this in order to complete the series of the types of worship, especially since no one has particularized this topic in a treatise – except what occurs within the books of reference as we have explained – but I have not found this in the form of a treatise.

My method for this treatise has been not to quote except what is authentic from the hadeeth of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – if Allaah wishes – ordering it according to the order of the Wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and I have commented on some of the points about which there is difference of opinion – stating that which is correct therefrom in our view after replying to the other opinions.

I ask Allaah to guide us to that which is proper – verily He is the One having authority over that and having the Power to do so.

The Definition of Wudoo

Wudoo in the Arabic Language:

Wudoo is the action, and wadoo the water used therefor – and it is also a verbal noun; or they are two forms of the same word, both meaning the verbal-noun and maybe both referring also to the water used.

Wudoo in the Sharee’ah:

Wudoo is using clean and cleansing (Tuhoor) water upon certain body parts as Allaah ta’ala has prescribed and explained.

The Prescription of Wudoo in The Kitaab And Sunnah:

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles [soorat-ul-Maa’idah, 5:7]

1. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The Prayer of anyone of you breaching purification is not accepted unless he makes wudoo. [Al-Bukhaaree, (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/206), Muslim (no.225) and others].

2. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Indeed I heard Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say: Allaah does not accept Prayer without purification, nor Sadaqah from illegally attained wealth. [Muslim (1/160) and others].

3. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Verily I have been ordered to make wudoo when I stand for Prayer. [Saheeh. Reported by Abu Dawood (no.3760); at-Tirmidhee (no.1848), and he declared it to be ‘hasan-saheeh’: an-Nasaa.ee (1/73). And Shaikh al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (‘Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.2333)].

4. Abu Sa’eed (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The key to Prayer is purification, its ‘tahreem’[1] is the takbeer and its ‘tahleel’[2] is the giving salaam. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.60); at-Tirmidhee (no.3); Ibn Maajah (no.275) and others. Declared as ‘saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee: (‘Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.5761)].

The Excellence of Wudoo

5. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) said: Shall I not guide you to that by which Allaah wipes away the sins and raises the ranks? They said: Certainly O Messenger of Allaah! He said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and many steps to the mosques and waiting for the [next] Prayer after the Prayer, that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ (defending the frontiers), that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ that is ‘ar-Ribaat’). [Reported by Muslim (1/151) and others].

6. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When the Muslim (or ‘Believing’) servant makes wudoo and washes his face then the sin of everything he looked at with his eye comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water, and when he washes his hands then the sin of everything he stretched out his hands to comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water. And when he washes his feet every sin which his feet walked towards comes away with the water or with the last drop of the water – so that he leaves clean (clear/pure) from sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/148) and others].

7. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said Peace be upon you, dwelling of Believing People and we will (all) if Allaah wills join you soon. I would have liked to have seen our brothers! They said: Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allaah? He said You are my Companions and our brothers are those who have not yet come! They said: How will you know those who have not yet come from your Ummah, O Messenger of Allaah? He said Have you not seen that if a man had a horse with a white blaze and hoof along with a totally jet-black horse, then would he not know his horse? They said: Certainly, O Messnger of Allaah. He said So they will come with white blazes and marks from the wudoo and I am present before them at the Hand (‘water-tank’) Indeed men will be driven away from my ‘water-tank’ as the lost camel is driven away from their gathering place. ‘Come on’. So it will be said: ‘Indeed they have made changes after you,’ so I will say: Be off, be off. [Muslim 249].

8. Abu Umaamah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When a Muslim makes wudoo the sins he has committed come away from his hearing and from his sight and from his hand and from his feet, so when he sits he sits down having been forgiven. [Reported by Ahmad (5/252) and is hasan].

9. Abu Maalik al-Ash’aree (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said Purification is half of Imaan. And ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fills the Scales. And ‘subhaanAllaah’ and ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fill whatever is between the heaven and the earth. And Prayer is a light. And Sadaqah is a clear proof. And Sabr (patience) is a shining light. And the Qur’aan is a proof for or against you. Every person starts the day dealing for his own soul so he either sets it free or destroys it. [Reported by Muslim (1/140) and others].

10. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, his sins come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails. [Reported by Muslim (3/133) and others].

11. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo like this – then all of his previous sins are forgiven – and his Prayer and his walking to the mosque are above and beyond that. [Reported by Muslim, 3/113].

12. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wasallam) said When one of you makes wudoo and makes it well, then goes out to the mosque – having no purpose except Prayer – then his left foot continues to wipe away his evil deeds and his right foot continually writes for him good deeds until he enters the mosque. And if the people knew what there was in the night prayer and Subh prayers – then they would come to them even if they had to crawl. [Reported by at-Tabraanee in ‘al-Mu’jam ul-Kabeer’. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh (As-Saheehah, no.454). And its meaning is reported by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurairah].

13. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well then goes out – and then finds that the people have finished the Prayer – then Allaah gives him the same reward as one who had prayed it along with the people without diminishing any of their reward. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.564) and an-Nasaa’ee (no.856) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6039)].

14. Zaid ibn Khaalid al Juhanee (radhiAllaahu’anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs not letting his mind wander in them – then Allaah forgives him all of his previous sins. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.905) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘hasan’ (As-Saheehah, no.6041)].

15. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs concentrating therein with his heart and his face – then Paradise is obligatory for him. [Reported by an-Nasaa’ee. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6062)].

16. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: I heard Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say Whoever makes wudoo for Prayer and completes the wudoo – then walks to the obligatory Prayer and prays it with the people – or with the congregation – or in the mosque – then Allaah forgives his sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/144) and others].

17. ‘Alee (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) relates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and walking to the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after the previous one (greatly) washes away the sins. [Reported by al-Haakim (1/132) who declared it to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim. And al-Haithumee said in ‘Az-Zawaa-id’: It is narrated by Abu Ya’laa and al-Bazzaar. And its narrators are up to the standard of Al-Bukharee],

18. Humraan ibn Abaan relates that ‘Uthmaan asked for water to make wudoo – then he mentioned how the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo . Then he said: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said at the end of the hadeeth Whoever makes wudoo in the same way that I have just made wudoo then stands up and prays two rak’ahs, not thinking of other things, then his previous sins are forgiven. [Related by al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 11/213) and Muslim (no.226) and an-Nasaa’ee ( 1/63)] .

The Components of Wudoo

An Niyyah (Intention)

This is the firm resolve of the heart to perform wudoo in obedience to the order of Allaah ta’ala and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullaah) said (Majmoo’at-ur-Rasaa-il il-Kubraa 1/243): “The place of the niyyah is the heart and not the tongue in all forms of ‘ibaadah – and that is agreed upon by all the Muslim scholars – Purification, Prayer, Zakaat, Sawm, Hajj, ‘Itq (freeing of slaves), Jihaad, etc. If he were to express with his tongue other than that which he intended in his heart – then what he intended is counted, not what he said. If he voiced the intention with his tongue and the intention was not in his heart, that will not count – by total agreement of all the scholars of Islaam – so the niyyah is the firm intention and resolve itself.”

19. As Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself explained in the hadeeth narrated by ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) in the Sahihain Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended… [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and Muslim, 6/48].

At-Tasmiyyah (Mentioning Allaah’s Name)

20. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’ anhu) said that Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said There is no wudoo for him who does not mention Allaah’s name upon it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.399), At-Tirmidhee (no.26), Abu Dawood (no.101) and others. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani says: hadeeth Saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaarni’, no.7444)].

Imam Ahmad in one of his two sayings is of the opinion that it is obligatory in wudoo, ghusl, and Tayammum. He was followed in this opinion by Abu Bakr, and it is the saying of al-Hasan (al-Basaree) and Imam Ishaaq – as reported by Ibn Qudaamah in ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/84) and their proof is this hadeeth.

Ibn Qudaamah adds: If we take the saying that it is obligatory, then the wudoo of one who deliberately leaves it is not correct as he has left an obligatory duty in Purification – just as if he had left the intention; and if he left it forgetfully then his purification is correct. (Al-Mughnee). And this is the saying that we regard as being correct.

As for Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullah) he held it to be obligatory if the related hadeeth was authentic – as occurs in his Kitaab-ul-Imaan – and the hadeeth is authentic, so therefore his opinion (rahimahullah) is that it is obligatory.

21. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim report from Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) that some of the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sought water for wudoo , so Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Does any of you have water? So he put his hand into the water and said Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. And I saw the water coming out from between his fingers until they all made wudoo . Thaabit said: “I said to Anas (radhiAllaahu’anhu): How many were there? He said: About seventy. [Al-Bukhaaree, 1/236, Muslim, 8/411, An-Nasaa’ee, V8].

As for the proof for that which we have stated – it is his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. As for those who say that it is only sunnah mu’akkadah then they base that upon the relative hadeeth being da’eef ( There is no wudoo … ). However since the hadeeth is saheeh as we have explained, then there remains no proof for them and the proof is with us, and Allaah Knows Best.

So it is therefore obligatory as we have shown, however the one who forgets should mention Allaah’s name when he remembers.

Washing the Hands

22. Humraan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that ‘Uthmaan called for water to make wudoo and washed his hands three times… then said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)make wudoo just as I have made wudoo . [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, and as preceded].

23. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhaaree doesn’t report “three times”].

24. And in the hadeeth of’Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu’anhu) he was asked about the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a bowl of water and made wudoo from it as the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, l/255), Muslim, 3/121].

25. Aus ibn Abi Aus reports from his grandfather (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo washing his hands three times. [Ahmad (4/9), An-Nasaa’ee (1/55) – with saheeh isnaad].

Al-Madmadah and Al-Istinshaaq

AL-MADMADAH: Is washing the mouth and moving the water around within it.

AL-ISTINSHAAQ: Is taking water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part.

AL-ISTINTHAAR: Is expelling the water from the nose after istinshaaq.

Washing the Mouth and Nose Together with One Handful (of Water)

26. ‘Abdullaah ibn Zaid al-Ansaaree said that it was said to him: Perform for us the wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a pot of water..until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

Washing the Mouth

27. In the hadeeth of ‘Amr ibn Yahyaa (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) he said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls of water. [Muslim, 3/123].

Al-Imam an-Nawawi says: And in this hadeeth is a clear proof for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water – washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.

28. In the hadeeth of’Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) in which she describes the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he said When you make wudoo then wash your mouth. [Al-Baihaqi says: ‘Its isnaad is saheeh.’ And it contains an addition to the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah in Abu Dawood, no.l43].

Washing the Nose and Expelling the Water

29. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you makes wudoo then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no.237), Abu Dawood (no. 140)].

30. Exerting in sniffing in the water as long as you are not fasting is reported in the hadeeth of Laqeet (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: O Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), inform me of the wudoo . He said Complete the wudoo and rub between the fingers and excert in breathing in the water into the nose unless you are fasting. [Abu Dawood, no.l42; At-Tirmidhee, no.38; An-nasaa’ee, no.ll4; IbMaajah, no.407; and others]. (Declared as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haalcim, and adh-Dhahabee agreed to that. Also declared as saheeh by Ibn al Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-Baghawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah: 1/417].

It is clear from these two ahaadith that washing the mouth and nose are both obligatory (waajib). Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’: Washing the nose and washing the mouth are both obligatory in both forms of purification – Ghusl and wudoo – as washing the face is obligatory in both of them in the established view of the madhhab; and it is the saying of Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ibn Abi Lailaa and Ishaaq, and it is reported from ‘Ataa.

Taking Water into the Nose with the Right Hand and Expelling it with the Left

‘Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards ‘Alee – as he made wudoo – and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand – he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – then this is his purification. [Reported by ad-Daarimee. Ash-shaikh al-Albaanee says in his notes on al-Mishkaat: Its isnaad is saheeh].

Washing the Face

The face (wajh) is determined as being everything between the beginnings of the hair down to the cheeks and the chin, and up to the start of the ears including that which is between the beard and ear.

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa’idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan narrates that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) called for water to make wudoo and so mentioned the way in which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo . Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim (no.226)].

Running Water Through the Beard with the Fingers

31. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard. [At-Tirmidhee (no.31), Ibn Maajah (no.430), Ibn Jaarood (p.43) and al-Haakim (1/14~) who declared its isnaad as saheeh as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan. See the note in al-Baghagawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah, 1/421].

32. Anas (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam), when he made wudoo , used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said This is what my Lord – the Great and Exalted – has ordered me to do. [Abo Dawood (no.145), al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-Haakim (1/149). Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani declares it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.4572)].

Some of the scholars have declared that entering water through the beard is obligatory and say: If he deliberately leaves it – then he must repeat the ( wudoo and) prayer. And this is the saying of Imam Ishaaq and Abu Thaur.

Most of the scholars however are of the opinion that the order is an order of desirability (istihbaab) and it is not obligatory – and that it is clearer that that which is obligatory is moving water through that part of the beard..so that it reaches the skin underneath. [Al-Khattaabee, 1/56].

Imam Ahmad and Laith and most of the scholars hold that moving water through the beard is obligatory when taking ghusl from Janaabah – and not obligatory in wudoo . [‘Aun al Ma’bood, 1/247].

Washing the Arms Including the Elbows

Note: The arms here which we are ordered to wash begin with the fingertips and hands – which are to be included in this washing – they being part of the arm (yad) which we are ordered to Wash in the aayah.

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa’idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan reports that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) called for water for wudoo and mentioned the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) way of making wudoo – and Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim as has preceded].

Regarding inclusion of the elbows in the washing of the arms – scholars have differed: Some of them saying that they must be included in this washing, and others saying that this is not so. And this difference of opinion is due to their disagreement over the meaning of the word “ilaa” (to) in the aayah – does it mean ‘up to/until’ or ‘up to and including’ ?

He who says that it means ‘up to’ does not include the elbows in the washing – just as Allaah ta’ala says: … thumma ‘atimmus-siyaama ilaa -llail: Then complete your fast till the night appears; [soorat-ul-Baqara, 2:187]. And this is the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Maalik.

Most scholars, however, hold the view that the meaning is ‘up to and including/along with’ – and thus include the elbows in the washing and use as their evidence Allaah ta’ala’s saying: ...wa yayazidkum quwwatan ilaa quwwatikum…: ...and add strength to your strength; [Soorat-ul-Hud 11:52]

33. The proof in this matter is the hadeeth of Nu’aim ibn Mijmar who said: I saw Abu Hurairah make wudoo – he washed his face and completed the wudoo , then washed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he reached the upper arm” – then in the end of the hadeeth he said: “This is how I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo . [Muslim, 1/246]

So, dear reader, it is clear from this hadeeth that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to wash the elbows further, he used to increase upon that and wash part of the upper arm.

34. Jaabir (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said that when the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallarn) made wudoo , he would pass the water over his elbows. [Reported by ad-Daaraqutnee (1/15), al-Baihaqee (1/56) and others – Ibn Hajr declared it to be hasan. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami’, 4547)].

Wiping the Head and Ears and ‘Imaamah

1. Wiping over all of the head as Allaah ta’ala says: …wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum…: …rub your heads (with water) [Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7]

Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’: Some of the people who claim that that which is ordered to be wiped is part of the head only – claim that the (Baa) [in the verse] means “part of” as if He had said: “Wipe part of your heads”.’ However, we say that in His saying wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum the (Baa) is as if He said regarding Tayammum wamsahoo bi wujoohikum [Allaah ta’ala orders us to wipe the faces].

Therefore their saying that the (Baa) means “part of” is incorrect and unknown to the scholars of the language. Ibn Burhaan says: ‘He who claims that the “baa” means “part of” has declared before the scholars of the language that of which they have no knowledge. [al-Mughnee, 1/112].

Ash-Shaukaanee (rahimahullah) says in Nail-ul-Autaar: It is not established that it means “part of” and Seebawaih (one of the foremost scholars of the Arabic language) has denied that in fifteen places in his book. (Nail-ul-Autaar, 1/193).

35. In the hadeeth of’Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu’anhu) is a further proof of the incorrectness of the saying that it means “a part of” – in that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head with his two hands, moving them forwards and backwards – beginning with the front of the head and (wiping) with them up to his nape then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) returned them to the place from which he began. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/251), Muslim (no.235), at-Tirmidhee (no.28) and others].

2. Wiping the ears: The ruling for the ears is the same as that for the head.

36. And it is authentically reported that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The two ears are a part of the head. [Reported by at-Tirmidhee, no.37; Abu Dawood, no.l34 and Ibn Maajah, no.444]. (Declared by ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee to be saheeh – as-Saheehah, 1/36 – and Imam Ahmad was of the view that wiping the ears has the same ruling as that for wiping the head.)]

As for those who hold the view that it is a sunnah they do not have any evidence except their regarding this hadeeth as being da’eef – it is however authentic due to a chain of narration which they did not come across and so the proof is with our saying – and Allaah Knows best.

And of the scholars who hold that they are part of the head are Ibn al-Musayyib, ‘Ataa, al-Hasan, Ibn Seereen, Sa’eed ibn Jubair and an-Nakha’ee and it is the saying of ath-Thauree and Ahl ur-Ra’y and Imams Malik and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

Taking Fresh Water for the Head and Ears

37. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee says in ‘ad-Da’eefah’, no.995: There is not to be found in the Sunnah anything which obligates taking fresh water for the ears – therefore he should wipe them along with the water for the head – just as it is also permissible to wipe the head with the water remaining from that of the arms after washing them according to the hadeeth of Ar-Rabee’ bint Mu’awwidh that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) “wiped his head with water remaining in his hand”. [Reported by Abu Dawood and others with hasan isnaad].

The Way of Wiping

38. From ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr – about the way of performing wudoo – he said: Then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.135), an-Nasaa’ee (no.140), Ibn Maajah (no.422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah].

Wiping Over the ‘Imaamah (Turban) Only

39. ‘Amr ibn Umayyah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wipe over his turban and leather socks. [Reported by al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/266) and others].

40. Bilaal (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) wiped over the leather socks and the head cover. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Wiping Over the Turban and Forelock

41. Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo and wiped over his forelock and over the turban and leather socks. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/310); And if part of the head is uncovered and it is normally so, then it is preferable to wipe over that along with the turban – that is recorded from Ahmad: as the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped over his turban and forelock – as occurs in the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah.

As for caps/’prayer hats’, it is not permissible to wipe over them as Ahmad says for various reasons, from them: (1) They do not cover all of the head normally, nor are they tied around it. (2) There is no difficulty in their removal.

As for the woman’s head cover – it is permissible to wipe over it as Umm Salamah used to wipe over her head cover – as reported by Ibn al-Mundhir. (See’al-Mughnee’, 1/312).

Washing the Feet and Ankles

Allaah ta’ala says: …wa arjulakum ilaal ka’bayn…: …and (wash) your feet to the ankles [Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7] [thus ordering the washing of the feet and ankles].

42. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) fell behind us and then came upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time for ‘Asr – so we began to make wudoo and wipe over our feet, so he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) called out at the top of his voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times) [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].

An-Nawawi says in his explanation of Sahih Muslim after mentioning the hadeeth: Muslim’s intention (rahimahullah) in quoting these hadeeth was to prove with it the obligation of washing the feet – and that wiping them is not sufficient.

43. In the hadeeth of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from Humraan ibn Abaan that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) called for water for wudoo and then mentioned the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – then Humraan said: Then he washed his right foot to the ankle three times and then his left foot to the ankle three times.

44. As Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) did in Muslim’s narration: “Then he washed his right foot till he reached the shin, then he washed the left foot till he reached the shin” and in the end of the hadeeth said: This is what I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) do. [Muslim, 1/246].

From this hadeeth – O Brother Muslim – it becomes clear that the ankles enter into this washing as is clear from his saying ’till he reached the shin’.

45. Al-Mustaurad (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: When the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.148), at-Tinnidhee (no.40) and Ibn Maajah (no.446). Declared as ‘saheeh’ by al-Albaanee].

As-San’aanee says in ‘Subul-us-Salaam’ after quoting this hadeeth: It is a proof for the obligation of wiping between the toes – and this also occurs in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas which we have indicated – which is reported by at-Tirmidhee, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim – and authenticated by al-Bukhaaree. And it is done by using the little finger. (See ‘Subul-us-Salaam’, 1/48).

46. And Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa salam) said Complete the wudoo and wipe between the Asaabi’ (fingers and/or toes). [Abu Dawood (no.142), at-Tirmidhee (no.37), an-Nasaa’ee (no.114), Ibn Maajah (no.407), al-Hakim (1/148). Al-Albaanee says: Saheeh.]. As-San’aanee says: It clearly means both the fingers and toes and is shown clearly in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas. [Subul-us-Salaam, 1/47].

The Reply to Those who Follow Wiping of the Feet Without Washing

(1) Wiping the feet when not wearing anything on the foot is not established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). As for their using as a proof the reading of the Aayah: wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum wa arjulakum ilaal ka’bayn: rub your heads and your feet to the ankles…[soorat-ul-Maaidah 5:7] reading (arjulikum) – and saying that the feet are thus connected to (the command to wipe) the heads – and this is not correct, rather they are connected to (the order to wash) the hands. As for the reading of the word (arjulikum) with Kasra of the laam – as-San’aanee says That is for wiping over the leather socks – as is shown by the Sunnah – and this is the best interpretation for this particular recital. (As-Subul, 1/58).

(2) The Qur’aan is not to be explained according to the human intellect – especially in the matters of worship such as Salaat and wudoo , etc. – but by the Sunnah which explains this Pillar. And there are many such examples in the Qur’an which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) explained by his sayings – and from this is the washing of the feet – and its proof from the Sunnah has preceded.

(3) If they wish to use the intellect then we say to them: The bottom of the foot has more right to be wiped than the surface (their saying being the wiping of the surface), and if they say: Then what about the socks? we say: That is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) just as washing the foot is also established in the Sunnah.

(4) Leaving out one of two verbs and sufficing with one of them, as the Arabs, when two verbs come together having similar meaning and are followed by things related to them, makes it permissible to mention only one of the two verbs and attaching those things relating to the second to those relating to the first which is mentioned – according to what the wording demands, until it is as if the two are partners with regard to the verb, as the poet said: I fed it with hay and cold water. And what is meant is: I fed it with hay and gave it cold water to drink.

(5) The saying of az-Zajjaj (a great scholar of the language): It is permissible that the wording (arjulikum) has the meaning of ‘wash the feet’ as the wording (ilal Ka’bain) conveys that meaning – as the mentioning of a limit suggests washing just as Allaah ta’ala says ilaal maraafiq [that is the limit of the elbows is for washing] however, if wiping were intended then there would be no need for mention of a limit just as Allaah ta’ala says wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum not mentioning any limit (for wiping the head) and further the term wiping can be used to mean washing. (Al-Mirqaat, 1/400).

(6) And further, the great majority of scholars have agreed that it is obligatory to wash the feet and that is reported – and reaches the level of mutawaatir from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says; and further it is not established that any of the Sahaabah differed regarding that – except what is reported from ‘Alee, Ibn ‘Abbas and Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhum) – and it is established that they went back on that. (Al-Mirqaat. 1/400~.

47. And Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said ...they will come on the Day of Judgement with their blazes shining from the wudoo (It has preceded, no.7). Meaning the Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) will know from the traces of the washing, as for those who do not wash then he will not know them on the Day of Judgement.

Ibn Hajr says: And it is established that this shining of the faces, hands and feet are particular to the Muslim Ummah.

Other Aspects of Wudoo

The Siwaak

The SIWAAK is that which the mouth is brushed with. And it is also called the MISWAAK, the plural being: SOOK. And the siwaak comes from the Araak tree and it is a well-known tree. Abu Hanifah said: It is the best of the trees whose twigs are used for brushing the teeth… smelling of milk. Abu Ziyaad said: From it is taken there tooth-sticks – from its twigs and roots – and the best part for that is its roots, and it is broadly spreading..And Ibn Shameel: The Araak is a tall fine-shoot green tree with many leaves and branches, having weak wood and growing in hollows – miswaaks are taken from it, being one of the citrus trees. Its singular is Araak and its plural Araa-ik. (Lisaan-ul-‘Arab, 268).

It is mustahabb (desirable) to use the siwaak at many different times as is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he used to use the siwaak at every Prayer, and before reading the Qur’an, and before sleeping and when waking, and when the breath changes – whether fasting or not – or whether at the start of the day or in the afternoon, and it is a form of worship which is easy therefore observe it, O my Muslim Brother.

48. And also when making wudoo , as Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If I did not fear to cause hardship to my Ummah I would have ordered them to use the siwaak with every wudoo. [Reported by at-Tirrnidhee (no.22) who said: Hasan Saheeh, and Maalik (no.123), Ahmad (4/116), Abu Dawood (no.37) and others. Al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Takhree; ul Mishkaat, no.390)].

49. And ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu’ anhaa) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The siwaak is a means of cleansing the mouth and pleasing the Lord. [Al-Bukhaaree reports it in mu’allaq form – connected by Ahmad, an-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan].

Ad-Dalk (Rubbing the Water over the Body Parts):

This is part of the wudoo authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Al-Mustawrid ibn Shadad said: I saw Rasoolullah (sailallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) when he made wudoo rubbing his toes with his litle finger. [Saheeh as has preceded].

50. Abdullah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihiwasallam) made wudoo and said Rub in this way. [See Nail-ul-Autaar, 4/39].

51. He (radhiAllaahu’anhu) also narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo with two thirds of a mudd[3] (of water) and rubbed over his forearms. [Ibn Khuzaimah (no.118), and its isnaad is Saheeh – and al-Haakim (1/161) reports it by way of Yahyaa ibn Abi Zaa’idah].

Performing the Wudoo in the Order Mentioned in the Ayaah

As for what is narrated regarding the ‘order’ as mentioned in the Aayah, then there is nothing to contradict that – and this order is obligatory (waajib) and it is said: Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Sa’eed ibn al Musayyib, 1/64].

As for what is related with regard to the Prophet’s wudoo (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) then it has been reported sometimes out of the regular order. And the proof is:

52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’d Yakrib said: I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) with water for wudoo , so he washed his hands three times, then washed his face three times, then washed his forearms three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears – their outsides and insides – and washed each of his feet three times. [Ahmad (4/132), Abu Dawood (1/19) with Saheeh isnaad. Ash-Shaukaanee (1/1~5) said: Its isnaad is good, and it is reported by ad-Diyaa in ‘al-Mukhtaarah’. And al-Albaanee records it in ‘as-Saheehah’, no.261] .

So this is a proof that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) did not always stick to the regular order – and this is a proof that it is not obligatory – however, his sticking to it mostly shows that it is Sunnah. And Allaah Knows best.

As-Suyooti says as is reported from him in ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ ( 1/48): It is used as a proof – that is the aforementioned hadeeth – by him who says that sticking to the regular order in wudoo is not obligatory as he washed his mouth and nose after washing his arms.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ says: This narration is ‘shaadh’[4] – and therefore not to be taken in contradiction to the established narrations which put the washing of the mouth and nose before the washing of the face.

I say: The difference of opinion between the scholars here is with regard to those parts of wudoo which are Sunnah. As for the obligatory duties – then they are according to the order mentioned in the noble Aayah, and the best thing is to perform all of the actions in the way mentioned in the majority of the ahaadeeth – and Allaah Knows best.

Al-Mawaalaat (Washing Each Part Directly After the Previous one – Leaving no Time Gap in Between)

Nothing other than this is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). It is however established that Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu’ anhu) urinated within the market, then made wudoo and so washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a Janazzah so he entered the mosque then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it. [Reported by Maalik (no.72) and al-Baihaqee (1/84). And ‘Ataa didn’t see anything wrong with leaving such gaps whilst making wudoo and it is the saying of al-Hasan, an-Nakha’ee and the better reported of the two sayings of ash-Shaafi’ee].

Beginning with the Right

That is washing the right hand before the left – and likewise the feet.

53. ‘Aaishah (radhiAllaahu ‘annaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim (no.267) and others].

54. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When you dress and when you make wudoo , then begin with the right. [Abu Dawood (4141), at-Tirmidhee (1766), an-Nasaa’ee (402). Al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh].

Economizing in the Use of Water and not Being Wasteful

55. Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa’ or up to five mudds. [Muslim (1/156) and others]. A saa’ is equal to four mudds. ( A mudd is that amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together.)

If you consider this hadeeth well, O my Muslim Brother, you would feel ashamed of what some people do these days – one of them opening the water tap and making wudoo and sometimes talking to his companion whilst the water is running out – what an excess in wastefulness! So he who does that should fear Allaah and remember this hadeeth and keep it in mind and follow the Sunnah with regard to using the water sparingly and not being wasteful – and here the true following of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is made clear and the true Muslim’s belief. It is from the Sunnah for the Muslim who wishes to make wudoo to have with him a container large enough for a mudd of water – in order to force himself to return to the following of the Sunnah.

The Du’aa After the Wudoo

56. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alahi wa sallam) said None of you makes wudoo and completes the wudoo then says:

Ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu washhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave andMessenger) except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him – so that he enters by whichever he pleases. [Reported by Muslim (no.234), Abu Dawood (no 169), at-Tirmidhee (no.55), an-Nasaa’ee (no.148), Ibn Maajah (no.470)].

And at-Tirmidhee adds an authentic addition to it:

Allaahumma aj’alnee minat-tawwabeen waj’alnee minal mutatahhireen (O Allaah, make me one of those who constantly repents toYou and of those who purify themselves.) [Declared as Sahih by al-Albaanee].

57. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)said Whoever makes wudoo then says upon finishing the wudoo:

Subhaanakallaahumma wa bihamdika ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illa anta astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika (I declare You free from all defects my Lord and all praise belongs to you and I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except You. I seek Your forgiveness and I turn to You) It is written in a parchment, then sealed and is not opened till Judgement Day. [Reported by Ibn ar-Sunnee in ‘Amal al Yaurn wal-l~ilah, no.30. Declared as Saheeh by al-Albaanee].

Washing Each Body-Part Once

68. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) once. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

59. ‘Abdullaah ibn Zaid narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

60. In the hadeeth of’Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) recorded by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) washed each of the parts three times.

So from these ahaadeeth it becomes clear to us that, as is well-known to the large majority of scholars, washing each body-part once is obligatory – and the second and third washings are Sunnah – and it is better to do likewise following the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) [‘al-Majmoo’ of an-Nawawi, 1/229].

The Desirability of Making Wudoo for Each Prayer

Al-Haafiz says in ‘al Fath’ (1/172) in the question ‘Making wudoo without having broken it’:

61. Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) says: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo for every prayer. I said: What had you (the Sahaabah) used to do? He said: One wudoo was sufficient for us till such time as we broke it.

This hadeeth is an evidence that what is meant generally is the obligatory Prayer.

Al-Tahaawee says: It may be that that was obligatory upon him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) particularly – then was abrogated on the Day of Fath by the hadeeth of Buraidah – meaning that which Muslim reports – that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed all the Prayers on the Day of Fath with one wudoo and that ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) asked him about that so he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said I did it deliberately. Or it may be that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to do it out of desirability only, then feared that it might be thought to be obligatory and so left it to show the permissibility of that.

I say: The result is that making wudoo for every Prayer is mustahabb and praying all of the Prayers with one wudoo is permissible – and Allaah Knows best.

The One who is not Sure if he has Broken the Wudoo or not Relies upon that which he is Certain of

If he who knows that he has made wudoo then is not sure that he has broken it – then his wudoo remains. And he who knows that he has done that which breaks wudoo and doubts when he has made wudoo thereafter then he does not have wudoo . In each case he relies upon that which he is certain of before that which he has doubt about – and he throws the doubt away. And this is the saying of the great majority of scholars – and it is the saying of Abu Hanifah, ash-Shaafi’ee and Ahmad. [‘Al-Mughnee’, 1/193, and ~iqh ul Awaaa’ee, 1/56].

62. And the proof for this is what is established from Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you feels something in his stomach and he isn’t sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not – then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell. [Muslim (Sharh an-Nawawi, 4/51), ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee Sharh ut-Tirmidhee, 1/79].

So the hadeeth is a proof that things remain upon their original state until there is a certainty of a change in that, and doubt does not harm that – so he who is sure of having made wudoo and thinks that he may have broken it, then he remains upon wudoo .

A Man and Woman’s Washing from a Single Vessel

63. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) narrates that one of the wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took a ghusl from Janaabah then saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) about to take a ghusl from the water remaining – so she informed him that she had made ghusl therefrom – so Rasoolulah said Nothing makes the water impure. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.67), and an-Nasaa’ee (no.326), and at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be hasan saheeh, and Ibn Maajah (no.370)].

Ibn ‘Abd ul-Barr says: There is nothing in the Sharee’ah to prevent each of them washing with the water remaining from the other – either together or one after the other, and this is the saying of the scholars of the different lands and the great majority of scholars – and the ahaadeeth about it are Mutawaatir. (Al-Istidhkaar, 1/373).

Making Wudoo after Eating Camel Meat

64. Jaabir ibn Samurah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that a man asked Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): Should I make wudoo because of the meat of sheep? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If you wish make wudoo and if you wish then do not make wudoo. He said: Should I make wudoo from the meat of the camel? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Yes, make wudoo from the meat of the camel. He asked: May I pray in sheep-pens? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Yes. He asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said No. [Reported by Muslim, 1/189].

Drying the Body Parts after Purification

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan, al- Hasan ibn ‘Alee, Anas ibn Maalik, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen, ‘Alqamah, al-Aswad, Masrooq, ad-Dahhaak, ‘Abdullaah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya’laa, Abul Ahwas, Ash-Sha’bee, Ath-Thawree, Ishaaq, Ibn ‘Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah, Maalik, Ahmad, and the Shafi’ee Madhhab in one saying, all say that it is permissible after both wudoo and ghusl to dry the body-parts. And their evidence is what ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) reports – she said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making wudoo . [Reported by at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be da’eef]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa’ee records it in ‘al-Kunaa’ with saheeh isnaad.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Sa’eed, 1/70). Al-Albaanee declares the hadeeth to be hasan. (Saheeh ul Jaami’, 4706).

65. Salmaan al-Faarsee narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo , then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face with it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.468)]. In az-Zawaa’id it is said: Its isnaad is saheeh.

I say: In its isnaad is al-Wadeen ibn ‘Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in ‘Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb’, so its isnaad is da’eef!! – but it is strengthened by the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah to the level of hasan – and Allaah Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) who described the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhaaree, and Muslim – and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the hadeeth of Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) – as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) “but he refused it” does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh – and Allaah Knows best.

Those Things which Break Wudoo

(1) That Which Comes Out from the Two Private Parts (Front And Back):

Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Allaah does not accept the prayer of any one of you having committed hadath until he makes wudoo. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/206) and Muslim (no.245)].

67. An-Nawawi says in ‘al-Majmoo’ (2/3) as for that which comes out of the two private parts – then it breaks wudoo according to Allaah ta’alas saying: Aw jaa’a ahadukum min al ghaa’it…: or one of you comes from offices of nature…[Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7] along with his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying There is no wudoo except from a sound or a smell. [Saheeh and has preceded (Saheeh ul Jaarni’ (7443)].

He adds: So that which comes out of the front or back part of a man or woman breaks the wudoo – whether excretion or urine or wind – or a worm or pus or blood or stones or anything else and there is no difference in that for something which happens normally or rarely.

(2) Sound Sleep[5]

68. ‘Alee ibn Abi Taalib (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The eye is the drawstring for the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wudoo. [Abu Dawood (no.203), Ibn Maajah (no.477), Ahmad. Declared as Saheeh by al-Albaanee].

In the hadeeth is an evidence that sleep does not in itself something that breaks wudoo , however the Purification is broken if it is possible for something to come out from the anus – however if that is restricted, e.g. by sitting flat on the earth, then that is not the case.

(3) Becoming Unconscious – Other than Sleep

That is the ‘intellect’ going away by any means because of insanirt or fainting or intoxication – as in this condition he does not know whether his wudoo is broken or not. This is the saying of the great majority of scholars. (Sharh Saheeh Muslim (4/74) and al-Mughnee (1/164)).

(4) Touching the Uncovered Private Parts

69. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you touches his penis and there is no veil between him and it nor any cover, then wudoo has become obligatory for him. [al-Haakim (1/138) and others]. (Al-Albaanee says: hadeeth Saheeh.)

(5) Touching the Penis

70. Busrah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you touches his penis then let him make wudoo. [At-Tirmidhee (1/18) who said it is hasan saheeh. And also declared as Saheeh by Ahmad, al-Bukhaaree and Ibn Ma’een (Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh Sharh Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh, no.319). Others also narrate it as authentic].

71. Talq ibn ‘Alee (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) was asked about a man’s touching his penis. Should he make wudoo ? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said And is it except a part of him? [At-Tirmidhee (no.85) and he said: And this is the best of what is reported in this regard]. Al-Albaanee says: Its isnaad is Saheeh, and this (the view that it doesn’t break the wudoo) is established as being that of a group of the Sahaabah, from them: Ibn Mas’ood, ‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir, and because of these Imam Ahmad gave the choice between this and the one before it. Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah harmonized the two carrying the first to mean if he touched it with desire and this upon the touching without desire – and there is in this hadeeth that which gives that impression and it is his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying ‘a part of him’. [Al-Mishkaat al Masaabeeh, notes on nos.3 19 and 320].

(6) Touching a Woman with Desire:

72. A man’s touching a woman without desire does not break the wudoo . ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) says: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed and I was lying in front of him as in front of a Janaazah, so when he wished to prostrate I pulled up my leg. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

73. And in the same way a woman’s touching a man without desire does not break wudoo as is established from ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa): I didn’t find the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) one night so I tried to find him with my hand – and my hand fell upon his feet which were raised up as he was making prostration. [Muslim (3/203) and an-Nasaa’ee (l/101)].

So we see from these two hadeeth that merely touching does not break the wudoo – and Allaah Knows best.

The author of’at-Ta’leeqaat us-Salafiyyah’ upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee (1/23) says concerning “he pushed me with his foot”: It is well-known that that is a touching without desire. And so the author uses it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the wudoo . As for the touching with desire – its proof is that the wudoo is not broken until a proof is established that it does indeed break it – and this is enough of a proof to show that it doesn’t break the wudoo for the one who holds that view – and above and beyond that is a further proof that it doesn’t break the wudoo is the hadeeth of kissing – as normally kissing is not free from touching with desire.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ (1/69) says regarding her saying “he kissed me and did not make wudoo”‘ – It contains a proof that touching a woman does not break the wudoo as kissing is part of touching and the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) did not make wudoo (before praying). And this (that touching a woman even with desire doesn’t break the wudoo ) is the saying of ‘Alee and Ibn ‘Abbaas and ‘Ataa ibn Taawoos, and Abu Hanifah and Sufyaan ath-Thawree. And this hadeeth is (in itself) da’eef but is supported by other narrations. And it is mursal – however ad-Daaraqutnee joins it – and it is (therefore) an authentic (saheeh) hadeeth inshaaAllaah. (See Nasb ur Raayah, l/70).

The author of ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/190) says: The touching is not in itself something which breaks wudoo but breaks wudoo as it leads to prostratic fluid or semen being emitted – so the condition which leads to breaking of the wudoo is considered – and that is when there is desire.

Summary: That when a man and woman are safe from anything being emitted which breaks wudoo – then their wudoo is not broken; and it is preferable to be on the safe side, as they may not be safe from such emissions in the condition of desire – and Allaah Knows best.

Conclusion:

This is what Allaah ta’ala has made easy for us to gather together about the wudoo and its rulings, so we hope from Allaah the Most High, the All-Powerful, that we have been able to do justice to the subject – and we hope that any scholarly solicitous brother who comes across anything in our booklet which is incorrect to cover up and give sincere advice. And it is Allaah who grants success.

REFERENCES:

  1. Al Qur’an al Kareem.
  2. Fathul Baaree – Explanation of Saheeh ul Bukhaaree – by Ibn Hajr.
  3. Saheeh Muslim with an-Nawawi’s explanation.
  4. Sunan Abi Dawood.
  5. Sunan an-Nasaa’ee.
  6. Jaami’ ut-Tirmidhee.
  7. Sunan Ibn Maajah.
  8. Al-Musnad of Imam Ahmad.
  9. As-Sunan al Kubraa of aI-Baihaqee.
  10. Al-Mustadrak ‘alas-Saheehain by al-Haakim.
  11. Al-Muwatta with az-Zarqaanees explanation.
  12. Majma’ az-Zawaa’id by al-Haitumee.
  13. Nasb ur-Raayah of az-Zaila’ee.
  14. Kanz ul Ummaal.
  15. Al Mughnee wash-Sharh ul Kabeer- Ibn Qudaamah.
  16. Sharh us-Sunnah al Baghawee.
  17. Al-Majmoo’ of an-Nawawee.
  18. Al-Isbidhkaar of Ibn ‘Abd il Barr.
  19. Mirqaat ul Mafaateeh Sharh of Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh.
  20. Saheeh ul-Jaami’ us-Sagheer by Al-Albaanee.
  21. Da’eef ul Jaami’ us-Sagheer by al-Albaanee.
  22. Nail ul Autaar of ash-Shaukaanee.
  23. Subul us-Salaam of as-San’aanee.
  24. Fiqh us-Sunnah of Sayyid Saabiq.
  25. Minhaaj us-Sunnah of Ibn Taimiyyah.
  26. Tahdheeb-ut-Tahdheeb of Ibn Hajr.
  27. Fiqh of al Imam Sa’eed ibn al Musayyib.
  28. Fiqh of al Imam al Auzaa’ee.
  29. Lisaan ul ‘Arab of Ibn Manzoor.
  30. Mashaariq ul Anwaar.
  31. ‘Aun al Ma’bood explana~ion of Abi Dawood.
  32. ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee explanahon of at-Tirmidhee.
  33. Tafseer Ibn Katheer.
  34. Fath-ul-Qadeer by ash-Shaukaanee.
  35. Kitaab-ul-Imaan by Ibn Taimiyyah.
  36. Majmoo’at-ur-Rasaa’il il-Kubraa by Ibn Taimiyyah.
  37. At Tafseer ul Kabeer of Al Fakhr-ur-Raazee.
  38. Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh – explanation of Mishkaat ul-Masaabeeh.
  39. At-Ta’leeqaat us-Salafiyyah upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee.

Footnotes

[1]That which makes normal actions, such as eating and talking, forbidden therein. again

[2]That which renders normal actions permissible

[3]The amount held by the two hands placed together.

[4]A narration whose isnaad is authentic but contradicts that which is better established.

[5]Khilaaf (difference) of Scholars – That sleep is in itself something which breaks wudoo. hadeeth “except from urine or excretion or sleep” … and further, thus hadeeth itself is a proof for this saying.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Errors in Prayers that must be Avoided

Table of Contents

(Originally published in Ad-Deen an-Naseehah)

  1. Errors in Prayers that must be avoided
    1. Wearing pants, or garments that hangs below the ankles.
    2. Consuming food of bad smell such has garlic or onion, or smoking10 before coming to prayer.
    3. Proceeding to mosque for prayer with brisk walk, or even running for fear of missing part of the prayer.
    4. Saying Takbeer al-Ihram while in rukoo’.
    5. Mumbling the niyyah or intention, and uttering it in a low audible voice.
    6. Neglecting raising the hands in the opening takbeer of salah and before and after rukoo’, and upon standing up for the third rak’ah.
    7. Neglecting the opening du’a of prayer, t’awwudth, and basmalah.
    8. Neglecting praying facing a sutrah.
    9. Reluctance to stand in the front line in congregational prayer.
    10. Gazing upward during prayer, or looking at the imam, right or left.
    11. Leaving gaps in lines of congregational prayer.
    12. Reciting surat al-Fatiha fast without pausing after each verse.
    13. Fidgeting during prayer, or looking at a watch or fiddling with one’s fingers, clothes or moving feet or other parts of the body restlessly.
    14. Holding the Qur’an and reciting from it by the muqtadi in congregational prayer to check the imam’s recitation.
    15. Racing with the imam, or moving with or before him in congregational prayer.
    16. Lowering the head excessively, or pushing it up, and arching the back during rukoo’.
    17. Sticking the arms to the sides of the body, in rukoo’ or sujood, and sticking the belly to the thighs in sujood.
    18. Praying while part of the back is exposed.
    19. Neglecting ta’meen (to say ‘Aameen) loudly when the imam recites the concluding verse of surat al-Fatiha, “waladh-dhalleen”.
    20. Resting only the tip of the head on the floor during sujood.
    21. Hasty performance of prayer which does not allow repose and calmness in rukoo’ or sujood.
    22. Sitting in tawarruk position in the last rak’ah of Fajr and Jum’ah prayers.
    23. Moving the two palms upon saying, ‘assalamu aleikum warahmatul-lah’ to end prayer.
    24. Counting tasbeeh with the left hand.
    25. Shaking hands with other praying people right after fardh prayer is over, saying, ‘taqabbala-llah’, or ‘haraman’
    26. Raising hands for dua’ soon as prayer is over.
    27. Walking away right after tasleem, at the end of prayer, and neglecting dthikr.
    28. Crossing in front of a praying person.
    29. Neglecting prayer when one is sick or ill.
    30. Praying in a graveyard

Errors in Prayers that must be Avoided

Salat (namaaz) or prayer is one of the most important pillars of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) warned that the first thing man will be questioned about on the Day of Resurrection is prayer. Abu Hurairah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saying:

The first act of worship man shall be questioned about on the Day of Resurrection is prayer. If it was performed correctly1, man shall certainly succeed and prosper, if it is not, he shall certainly lose and fail. If, however, man’s prayer was incomplete, the Lord, the Exalted, would say (to His Angels), “See if my slave performed supererogatory (nafl) prayers to make up what he had missed of the obligatory prayers. The rest of man’s deeds will be reckoned in the same manner2.

Buraidah reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, The covenant3 which is between us and those (who embrace Islam) is prayer. Whoso neglects it, becomes an unbeliever4.

On the other hand, Allah has prepared great rewards for the believers who observe prayer and are particular about it. Perfect prayer effaces sins. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Have you considered, a river running by the door of you in which he bathes five times a day; would any of his dirt stay on him? They said “None of his dirt would stay on him.” The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said So does Salah; therewith Allah eliminates sins5.

Therefore, brothers and sisters it is very important to be regular on prayer, and perform it correctly. One may perform prayer according to the way he was taught by his parents or sheikh, according to their madthhab. But you should always remember that it is only the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) who must be followed. The angels will not ask you, while in the grave, “Did you follow this imaam or that imaam?” Your imaam will not be with you then, nor will he defend you on the Day of Resurrection.

The traditions quoted here, and in every issue of Ad-Deen an-Naseehah, are authentic. Anyone who rejects the authentic Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) exposes himself to destruction, as stated by Imaam Ahmed.

The following are some common errors committed by Muslims in their Salah. These errors must be avoided hoping that Allah would accept this act of worship and reward us for it.

 

 

1) Wearing pants, or garments that hangs below the ankles.

This is one of the greatest sins. Abu Dtharr reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, There are three people whom Allah shall not speak to on the Day of Resurrection, nor shall he look at them, nor shall he purify them, and they shall have a painful torment: One whose garment hangs down below his ankles, almanaan6, and (a merchant) who sells of his merchandise by means of false oath7.

Some people think that wearing clothes that hang below the ankles is not a sin if they abstain from doing so while praying only. Others think that wearing such a garment is a sin only if it is worn out of pride; otherwise, they believe there is no harm in doing so. However, the above and many other traditions indicate clearly that wearing clothes that hang below the ankles (for men) is a grave sin regardless of whether such garments are worn out of habit or pride. There are other authentic traditions that emphasize wearing clothing that hangs below the ankles out of pride entails harsher punishment. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said The part of the garment which hangs below the ankles is (punishable by) Fire (on the Day of Resurrection)8.

It is commonplace to see brothers folding up the hems of their pants for prayer. However, as soon as prayer is completed, they unfold their pants. The belief that wearing garments that hang below the ankles is prohibited during prayers only is a misconception commonly held by many Muslims. Such Muslims are unaware that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) forbade praying with folded clothes9. Based on this prohibition, scholars have agreed that praying with folded sleeves or pants is unlawful.

 

 

2) Consuming food of bad smell such has garlic or onion, or smoking10 before coming to prayer.

Angels and the praying people are bothered by offensive smell. On the contrary, one should wear perfume, if available before coming into mosques. Jabir reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: He who eats from the smelly plant [garlic or onion], let him come not near our mosque; the angels are bothered by that which bothers men11.

 

 

3) Proceeding to mosque for prayer with brisk walk, or even running for fear of missing part of the prayer.

This may disturb those who are already in prayer. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: When prayer has already started, do not walk quickly to join in. Proceed calmly and reposefully; then join in whichever part you catch up, and complete whichever part you missed (i.e., soon after the imaam ends the prayer)12.

 

 

4) Saying Takbeer al-Ihram while in rukoo’.

Many of those who come late to the mosque and join in prayer which is already in progress, rush to take the same posture, while people are in rukoo’, and say takbeer al-Ihram, or the opening takbeer of prayer while bowing for fear of missing that ruk’ah. Takbeer al-Ihram is to be pronounced when one is standing upright, only.

 

 

5) Mumbling the niyyah or intention, and uttering it in a low audible voice.

The heart is the place of intention. Mumbling words such as “I intend to pray such prayer or such number of rak’aat, or I intend to fast, or do such act of worship or another,” just before starting prayer is a bid’ah which was practiced neither by the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) nor his companions, nor by their followers.

Uttering the above words of niyyah allows shaitaan to put irrelevant words in the mouth of the person who utters the niyyah. Do you remember at one time or another that once you stood up for dhuhr prayer and discovered yourself saying, “I intend to pray four rak’aat of Isha,” or when you were standing for Asr prayer you made your intention to pray fajr instead? This confusion is from shaitan. Had you kept silent, shaitan would have no chance of confusing you.

 

 

6) Neglecting raising the hands in the opening takbeer of salah and before and after rukoo’, and upon standing up for the third rak’ah.

Abdullah bin Umar said, “I saw the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) raising his hands to the level of his shoulders, upon starting prayer, and before bending for rukoo’ and when he stood up again13.

Raising hands with every takbeer, subsequent to the first takbeer in janazah, Eed or rain prayers is not recommended. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to put his hands on his chest (while standing in prayer)14.

 

 

7) Neglecting the opening du’a of prayer, t’awwudth, and basmalah.

T’awwudth is saying “Aoudhu billahi min ashshaitan ir-rajim” and basmalah is saying “Bismillah hirRahmaan irRaheem.”

 

 

8) Neglecting praying facing a sutrah.

The sutrah is an object, such as a wall, or a post, which a person faces while praying. Or any other object which a person places to serve as a sutrah, by putting it on the ground in order that no one may cross in front of him while praying. The Messenger of Allah SAWS said: Pray facing a sutrah, and let no one cross in front of you while praying. If he insists, then prevent him by force because he is accompanied by shaitan15.

And he said: When one of you prays facing a sutrah, let him pray close to it so that shaitan may not be able to nullify his prayer16.

The above tradition indicates clearly that shaitan crosses in front of a praying person who prays without a sutrah, causing his prayer to be null and void without being aware of it. Even if one prays in an open field, he should place a sutrah in front of him.

Allah says: (Verily) He (the shaitan) and his own people see you while you do not see them17.

 

 

9) Reluctance to stand in the front line in congregational prayer.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Were people to realize the value of making adthan (the call for prayer), and the great reward (for doing so) and the virtue of standing in the first line (in congregational prayer), and had no choice but to make a draw (to decide who makes adthan or stands in the first line) they would have justifiably done so. And were people to know the significance of coming early to (congregational) prayer, they would have raced with one another (to reach the mosque first). And if they were to know the great reward (for coming to mosque) for Isha’ and Fajr prayers, they would have come even if they had to crawl (i.e. even if they were disabled, they would have come crawling for fear of missing its great reward.)18.

 

 

10) Gazing upward during prayer, or looking at the imam, right or left.

This may cause loss of concentration. We are commanded to lower our gaze, and look at the point at which the head rests during sujood. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) warned: Let those who raise their gaze up during prayer stop doing so, or else their sights would not return to them. [i.e. lose their eyesight]. (Muslim)

 

 

11) Leaving gaps in lines of congregational prayer.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded: Straighten your lines, level your shoulders and block the gaps. Shaitan passes through [line] gaps19.

 

 

12) Reciting surat al-Fatiha fast without pausing after each verse.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to pause after each verse of this surah20.

 

 

13) Fidgeting during prayer, or looking at a watch or fiddling with one’s fingers, clothes or moving feet or other parts of the body restlessly.

All of this diminish the reward for prayer. Submissiveness is a condition of acceptance of prayer. Allah’s command signifies: And stand [in prayer] to Allah submissively21.

 

 

14) Holding the Qur’an and reciting from it by the muqtadi in congregational prayer to check the imam’s recitation.

This act distracts the person who is doing so and prevents him from concentration. It is a dispraised act during salah.

 

 

15) Racing with the imam, or moving with or before him in congregational prayer.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Move not before the imam does. When the imam says. Allahu akbar, you say, Allahu akbar. When he says, waladh-dhalleen’ you say, aameen. In another narration, he said: Surely the imam is there to be followed22. He also said: Does not the one who raises his head before the imam does fear that Allah would transform his head into a donkey’s head23.

 

 

16) Lowering the head excessively, or pushing it up, and arching the back during rukoo’.

The head must be kept in normal position, while the back must be straight during rukoo’ to form with legs a right angle.

 

 

17) Sticking the arms to the sides of the body, in rukoo’ or sujood, and sticking the belly to the thighs in sujood.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Let not one of you support himself on his forearms (in sujood ) like the dog. Let him rest on his palms and keep his elbows away from his body24. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to keep his arms away from his body during rukoo’ and sujood that the whiteness of his armpits could be seen25.

 

 

18) Praying while part of the back is exposed.

This happens to those who wear tight and short shirts or tight pants; when they bow or prostrate, part of their backs are exposed. Such part of the body is awrah, or the part which must be covered always. Exposing part of the back during salah, renders salah null and void.

 

 

19) Neglecting ta’meen (to say ‘Aameen) loudly when the imam recites the concluding verse of surat al-Fatiha, “waladh-dhalleen”.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded: When the imam says, ‘waladh-dhalleen’, say ‘Aameen’, because the angels also say, ‘Aameen’, and the imam says, ‘Aameen’. He whose aameen coincides with the aameen of the angels, Allah forgives his past sins26. In another narration, the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Then say, ‘Aameen’, Allah loves you27.

 

 

20) Resting only the tip of the head on the floor during sujood.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: I am commanded to prostrate on seven bones the forehead and the nose, the two hands [palms], the two knees, and the two feet28. Applying the above command necessitates resting the forehead and the nose on the ground during sujood.

 

 

21) Hasty performance of prayer which does not allow repose and calmness in rukoo’ or sujood.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saw a man who did not complete his rukoo’ [bowing], and made a very short sujood [prostration]; he said: If this man dies while praying in this manner, he would die upholding a religion other than the religion of Muhammad. Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)29.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer. People asked, ‘Messenger of Allah! How could one steal from his own prayer?’ He said: By not completing its rukoo’ and sujood30.

To complete rukoo’ is to stay in that posture long enough to recite ‘subhana rabbiyal Adtheem’ three times, slowly, and ‘subhana rabbiyal-a’ala’ three times, slowly, in sujood. He also announced: He who does not complete his rukoo’ and sujood, his prayer is void31.

 

 

22) Sitting in tawarruk position in the last rak’ah of Fajr and Jum’ah prayers.

It is praiseworthy to take tawarruk position only in the last rak’ah of Dhtuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha’ prayers. Tawarruk is described in Sahih al-Bukhari as resting the body, during sitting position, on the left thigh and putting the left foot under the right leg, while setting the right foot upright; and supporting the body by the left hand with which the left knee is grasped. See the accompanying diagram, which was hand-drawn (not copied) after looking at “The Reliance of the Traveler.”

 

 

23) Moving the two palms upon saying, ‘assalamu aleikum warahmatul-lah’ to end prayer.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saw some of his companions doing so. He objected: Why do I see you moving your hands like the tails of wild horses. They never did that again32.

 

 

24) Counting tasbeeh with the left hand.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to count tasbeeh on the fingers of his right hand after salah. Abdullah bin Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, (There are) two good deeds, any Muslim who does them shall enter Jannah but few are those who do them: to say, “subhanAllah” ten times, and “alHamdulillah” ten times, and “AllahuAkbar” ten times. And I have seen the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) counting them on his hand. lbn Qudamah said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used his right hand for tasbeeh33.

The above hadeeth indicates clearly that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used only one hand for counting tasbeeh. No Muslim with sound mind would imagine that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used his left hand for counting tasbeeh. Aa’ishah, with whom Allah is pleased, said that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used his left hand only for Istinjaa’, or cleaning himself after responding to the call of nature. He never used it for tasbeeh. Yasirah reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded women to count tasbeeh on their fingers.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: They (the fingers) will be made to speak, and will be questioned (on the Day of Resurrection.)34

The above hadeeth indicates that it is preferable to count tasbeeh on the fingers of the right hand than to do so on masbahah (rosary).

 

 

25) Shaking hands with other praying people right after fardh prayer is over, saying, ‘taqabbala-llah’, or ‘haraman’

This is a bid’ah which was never practiced by the Prophet’s companions or their followers, may Allah be pleased with them.

 

 

26) Raising hands for dua’ soon as prayer is over.

This was not the practice of the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam). The Sunnah is to start with dthikr soon after salah is over. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: When you recite, ‘At-tahiyyat…’, (just before tasleem), choose whichever du’a you like35.

The best forms of du’a are those authentically related to the Prophet, (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam).. Insha’ Allah, we will publish the authentic du’a masnoon, soon.

 

 

27) Walking away right after tasleem, at the end of prayer, and neglecting dthikr.

Dthikr is reciting subhanal-Lah 33 times, alhamdu Lilah 33 times Allahu Akbar 33 times, reciting La ilaha illal-Laah 10 times reciting ayat al-Kursi [i.e. verse 255 of surah 2 al Baqarah], or other authentic dthikr.

 

 

28) Crossing in front of a praying person.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) warned: Were the one who crosses in front of a praying person to know the consequences of doing so, he would have waited for forty better than to cross in front of him36. The forty in the tradition may be days months or even years. Allah knows best.

 

 

29) Neglecting prayer when one is sick or ill.

Salah is one of the most important pillars of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) never neglected it during his sickness, nor while combating enemies. Prayer must be performed regardless. If one cannot perform ablution for one legal reason or another, then he must perform dry ablution tayammum by patting with his palms a dusty surface, then wiping the face and hands. If he cannot stand up in prayer, he may pray while sitting or lying down on his side. Otherwise, it is enough for him to pray by moving his eyes up for rukoo’ and down for sujood, and complete the rest of the prayer postures in the same manner.

 

 

30) Praying in a graveyard.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Pray not in graveyards, nor sit on graves37.

The format of prayer is enjoined by the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam). No imam or a scholar has the right to alter it by adding to or deleting from it. There is no book of authentic hadeeth or Prophetic tradition reporting that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded men to pray in one way, and women in another. He commanded: Pray as you saw me praying38. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) did not differentiate between men and women in prayer.

Some scholars opine that it is better for women to gather themselves in sujood. As every body knows, prayer is an act of worship, and like every other act of worship, there must be a textual proof for it in the Qur’an or the authentic Sunnah. A future issue of Naseehah will, insha’Allah, include the format of prayer as reported in the authentic traditions. Let us pray to Allah, extolled be His glory, seeking His forgiveness, and asking him to guide us to the straight path. Aameen.