REBELLION AGAINST MUSLIM RULERS
The Prophet Whosoever sees something from his leader of sin, then let him hate whatever occurs from sin. And let him not remove his hand from obedience, since whoever removes his hand from disobedience and splits off from the Jamaa’ah (united body), then he dies the death of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaamic times of ignorance).’’ Related by al-Bukhaaree (13/5) and Muslim (no. 1849)
 The Prophet said: ‘‘The person must obey in whatever he loves, and in whatever he hates, in ease and in hardship, in willingness and un-willingness; except if he is commanded to disobey Allaah. So if he is commanded to disobey Allaah, then he should not listen, not should he obey.’’ Related by al-Bukhaaree (4/203)
 The Companions asked him: O Messenger of Allaah! When you mentioned that there will be rulers, ‘you will approve of some things from them, and disapprove of others things.’ They said: So what do you command us to do? He said: ‘‘Give them their right, and invoke Allaah, since He is with you.’’ ’Ubaadah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said: ‘‘We gave the oath of allegiance to the Messenger of Allaah that we would not oppose the command, not its people.’’ He said: ‘‘Except if you were to see clear disbelief (kufran bawaahan) about which you have a proof from Allaah.’’ Related by Muslim (6/17)
 ’Umar Ibn Yazeed said: I heard al-Hasan al-Basree during the days of Yazeed Ibnul-Mahlab, and there came to him a group of people. So he commanded them to stay in their houses and to close their doors. Then he said: ‘‘By Allaah! If the people had patience when they were being tested by their unjust ruler, it will not be long before Allaah will make a way out for them. However, they always rush for their swords, so they are left to their swords. By Allaah! Not even for a single say did they bring about any good.’’ It is related by Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabaqaat (8/164), and by Ibn Abee Haatim in his Tafseer (3/178).
 Imaam as-Suyootee said in al-Ishbaah wan-Nadhaa‘ir (p. 87): ‘‘Preventing mafsadah (harm) is given precedence over procuring maslahah (benefit).’’ And Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said in al-Hisbah fil-Islaam (p. 124): ‘‘Ordering the good should not result in the loss of a greater good, nor cause a greater evil (than before). Likewise, forbidding the evil should not result in a greater evil, nor in the loss of a greater good.’’
 Imaam Aboo Bark al-Aajurree (d.360H) – rahimahullaah – said: ‘‘It is not permissible for the one who sees the uprising of a khaarijee who has revolted against the leader, whether he is just or oppressive – so this person has revolted and gathered a group behind him, has pulled out his sword and has made lawful the killing of Muslims – it is not fitting for the one who sees this, that he becomes deceived by this person’s recitation of the Qur‘aan, the length of his standing in Prayer, nor his constant fasting, nor his good and excellent words in knowledge when it is clear to him that this person’s way and methodology is that of the Khawaarij.’’ Refer to ash-Sharee’ah (p. 28).
 Imaam ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee (d.1376H) – rahimahullaah – said: ‘‘As for advice to the imaams of the Muslims – and they are their leaders; from the main leader to the ministers and judges, to everyone who is appointed over them with a general or specific type of leadership – then it is to believe (i’taqad) in their leadership, and to listen to and obey them. And it entails invoking the people to do likewise, and to strive according to that which is feasible to guide them. And it is to inform them of everything that benefits them and benefits the people, and to the establishment of their obligation.’’ Refer to Bahjatul-Quloobil-Abraar (p. 19).
 Imaam Ibn Abil-’Izz (d.729H) – rahimahullaah – said: “We do not say about a particular individual from amongst the people of the Qiblah, that he is from the people of Paradise, or from the people of the Fire, except about those whom the truthful has informed about, that he is from amongst the people of Paradise, such as the ten who were given glad tidings of Paradise, may Allaah be pleased with them. And if we say that whomsoever Allaah wishes to enter into the Hellfire, from amongst the people who commit major sins will – by necessity – enter the Hellfire, and that he will be brought out of the Hellfire by the intercession of those who are entitled to intercede, then we would refrain from attributing this to a specific individual. So we do not testify for him that he will enter Paradise, nor that he will enter the Hellfire, except due to knowledge, because the reality is hidden, and what an individual dies upon cannot be encompassed by us. However, we do hope for those who do good, and we fear for those who do evil.’’ Refer to Sharhul-’Aqeedatit-Tahaawiyyah (p. 378).
 Imaam Ibn Abee ’Aasim said in Kitaabus-Sunnah (2/251): ‘‘Chapter: How are the leaders of the common-folk to be advised?’’ And he related: From Shurayh Ibn ’Ubayd al-Hadramee and other than him who said: ’Iyaad Ibn Ghunm was whipping a person of a land which was conquered. So Hishaam Ibn Hakeem spoke harshly with him, until ’Iyaad became angry. So he stayed the night (like this) through the night, then he came to Hishaam Ibn Hakeem and sought an excuse from him. Then Hishaam said to ’Iyaad: Have you not heard the Prophet saying: “Verily the person who shall suffer the severest punishment is the one who is most severe in punishing the people in this world.’’ So ’Iyaad Ibn Ghunm said: “O Hishaam Ibn Hakeem! Indeed we have heard what you have heard, but you have not heard the statement of the Messenger of Allaah : “Whosoever wishes to advise the ruler concerning a matter, then let him not do it openly. Rather, he should take him by the hand and take him into seclusion. So if he accepts his advice, then he has achieved his objective, and if he does not accept from him, then he has still conveyed that which was a duty upon him.” And verily you – O Hishaam – are a reckless fool – therefore, you dare to come out against the ruler of Allaah. So why are you not scared that you may be killed by the ruler, so you will be one who was killed by the ruler of Allaah the Blessed and Exalted?!” In addition to Ibn Abee ’Aasim, this hadeeth was also related by Ahmad (3/403), and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Dhilaalul-Jannah fee Takhreejis-Sunnah (no. 1096).
 Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – said: “Verily I supplicate for the ruler, for his correctness, success and support – night and day – and I see this as being obligatory upon me.’’ Refer to as-Sunnah (no. 14) of Aboo Bakr al-Khallaal.
 Imaam Maalik Ibn Anas (d.179H) – rahimahullaah – said: “The right of every Muslim whom Allaah has blessed with something of knowledge and understanding (fiqh), is that he enters upon the ruler to command him with goodness, and to prohibit him from evil, and to admonish him.” Refer to Tarteebul-Madaarik (1/207-208) of al-Qaadee ’Iyaad. Ibn Abee Haatim relates in al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel (1/30) from Imaam Maalik, that it was said to him: ‘Verily you enter upon the ruler whilst they (the people) are being oppressed (by the ruler)!’ So Maalik said: “May Allaah have mercy upon you! So where is the person who will speak with the truth?! Indeed the Messenger of Allaah said: “The most excellent Jihaad is a truthful word spoken to an oppressive ruler.” The hadeeth was related by Ibn Maajah (no. 4012), and Ahmad (5/251); and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 1100).
 From Yazeed Ibn Kusayb al-’Adawee who said: I was with Abee Bakrah under the pulpit of Ibn ’Aamir, and he was giving a sermon, and he was wearing fine clothes. So Aboo Bilaal said: Look at our leader wearing the clothes of the sinners! So Aboo Bakrah said: Be silent, I heard the Messenger say: “Whosoever holds contempt for the ruler of Allaah upon the earth, then Allaah will hold contempt for him.” This is an authentic hadeeth related by at-Tirmidhee (no. 1812). Imaam adh-Dhahabee says in Siyar A’laamun-Nubalaa (14/508): “This Aboo Bilaal is Mirdaas Ibn Udiyyah, a khaarijee. And from his ignorance is that he counts the man who wears fine clothes as being from amongst those who wear the clothes of sinners.”
 Sa’eed Ibn Jumhaan said: ‘I came to ’Abdullaah Ibn Abee Awfaa and his eyes were covered, so I greeted him. He said to me: Who are you? So I said: I am Sa’eed Ibn Jumhaan He said: So what was done with your father? I said: The Azaariqah (followers of Naafi’ Ibnul-Azraq al-Khaarijee) killed him. He said: May Allaah curse the Azaariqah! May Allaah curse the Azaariqah! The Messenger of Allaah has informed us that they are the ‘dogs of the Hellfire.’ He said: So I said: The Azaariqah alone, or all of the Khawaarij? He said: Yes, all of the Khawaarij. He said: So I said: Verily the ruler is oppressing the people and affecting them. He said: So give him your hand, and connect your hand to his firmly. Then he said: “Woe to you O Ibn Jumhaan! Stick to the Suwaadul-A’dtham, stick to the Suwaadul-A’dtham! If the ruler will listen to you, then go to his house and inform him of what you know. So he may accept from you, but if not, then leave him; since you do not know more than him.’’’ This incident was reported by Ahmad (4/3272-372), it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Dhilaalul-Jannah (no. 508). ’Abdullaah Ibn Ahmad (d.290H) – rahimahullaah – with an authentic chain of narrators going back to Sa’eed Ibn Jumhaan who said: “The Khawaarij used to call upon me, until I was about to enter along with them. So I saw the sister of Aboo Bilaal in a dream, where Aboo Bilaal was a black hairy dog, and his eyes were filled with tears. He said: So she said: You are with my father O Abaa Bilaal! What is it from your affairs that I see you like this? He said: ‘‘After you, we were made into dogs of the Fire.’’ And Aboo Bilaal was from amongst the leaders of the Khawaarij.’’ Refer to as-Sunnah (no. 1509).
 Fudayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) – Rahimahullaah – said: “If I had a supplication that would be answered, I would not make it, except for the ruler. Because when the ruler becomes righteous, the towns and the servants become safe and secure.” Refer to Hilyatul-Awliyaa‘ (8/91-92).
Ibn al Mubaarak Rahimahullaah said (in reference to the above saying of al-Fudayl), “O teacher of goodness, who would show boldness towards this besides you?”
 Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (d.852H) – Rahimahullaah – said in Fathul-Baaree (1/138): “The advice to the leaders of the Muslims is to aid them upon that by which they will become established. And it is to warn them against negligence, and to correct their deficiency when they slip, and to unite the word upon them, and to reject the hearts that have enmity towards them. And the greatest advice is to prevent them – by using that which is good – from oppression.”
 The Prophet said: ‘‘There are three things towards which the heart of a Muslim never shows hatred or rancour: Making one’s action sincerely for Allaah; giving obedience to the rulers (wulaatul-umoor); and sticking to the Jamaa’ah (united body). Since their supplication encompasses those who are behind them (i.e. those whom they rule over).’’ This narration was related by Ahmad (4/80), and at-Tirmidhee (no. 2567), and it was authenticated by al-Haythamee in al-Majma’uz-Zawaa‘id (1/137).
The Prophet said, “Listen and obey, even if the ruler seizes you and beats your back.” Related by Muslim (6/19) So it is obligatory to obey the ruler of the Muslims in obedience to Allaah, but if he commands disobedience (to Allaah), then he is not to be obeyed in this command, meaning: in the command of disobedience. However, he is still to be obeyed in other than that, from that which does not involve sin. As for dealing with the disbelieving (kaafir) ruler, then this differs depending upon the various situations. So if the Muslims have the power and capability to fight him, and to remove him from rule, and a Muslim ruler is present, then that is obligatory upon them, and this is from Jihaad in the Path of Allaah. As for when they are not capable of opposing him, then it is not permissible for them to instigate anything by oppression and disbelief, because this will result in harm and affliction upon the Muslims.
The Prophet stayed in Makkah for thirteen years and the government there was a disbelieving government. Despite this, whoever accepted Islaam from his Companions did not fight against the disbelievers. Rather, they were prohibited from fighting the disbelievers for this extremely long period of time, except after the Prophet migrated and a state was established and a community arose making them capable of fighting the disbelievers, this is the methodology of Islaam.
So when the Muslims are under a kaafir government, and they are not capable of removing it, then they must hold firmly onto Islaam and their ’aqeedah. However, they should not endanger themselves by endeavouring to oppose the disbelievers, because that will only result in the destruction and annihilation of the da’wah (call). As for when they have power (quwwah) making them capable of Jihaad, then they should perform jihaad in the Path of Allaah upon the known Sharee’ah fundamentals.”
“Power is known, so if you can carry out an action, and the Muslims start to become capable of establishing jihaad in the Path of Allaah, then jihaad has been legislated for them against the disbelievers. As for when their power is estimated, and not fully certain, then it is not permissible to endanger the Muslims, nor to urge them towards danger; thus taking them towards and end that is not praiseworthy. And the seerah (biographical account) of the Prophet in Makkah and al-Madeenah is an excellent witness to this.”
 Imaam Maalik Ibn Anas used to say, “The latter part of this Ummah will not be corrected, except by that which corrected its first part.” Related in ash-Shifaa‘ of al-Qaadee ’Iyaad (2/676). Al-Haafidh al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee said: “When the Messenger of Allaah passed away, the Muslims were upon one way in regards to the fundamentals of the Religion and its details, except those who outwardly displayed agreement, but concealed hypocrisy.” Refer to al-Farq baynal-Firaq (p. 14).
 Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal relates in az-Zuhd (p. 48), and ad-Daarimee in as-Sunan (1/91): From ’Umar Ibn ’Abdul-’Azeez that he said: “If you see a people discussing anything of their Religion in secrecy, to the exclusion of the people in general, then know that they are upon the foundation of misguidance.” Ibnul-Jawzee said in Talbees Iblees (p. 89): “So our Religion, all praise being for Allaah, is clear and manifest, containing nothing hidden, nor anything concealed, suppressed, nor secret. So whatever the people of partisanship employ from that, then it is the door to misguidance, and refuge is sought from Allaah.”
 Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Indeed the people of the truth and the Sunnah do not follow anyone, except the Messenger of Allaah – the one who does not speak from his desires – it is only revelation revealed to him. They hold that belief in all that he narrated is obligatory, as is obedience in all that he commanded. This rank is not given to anyone other than him from the imaams. Rather, statements of every individual are taken or left, except the Messenger of Allaah So whoever makes other than the Messenger of Allaah a criterion, such that whoever loves him and stands by him becomes from Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and whoever opposes him becomes from the people of innovation, and differing – as is found in the groups following the leaders of kalaam (theological rhetoric) with regards to the Religion – then he is from the people of innovation, misguidance and division!”
 Hudhaifah (ra) reports that the Messenger of Allaah (saw) said “There will come leaders who will not follow my guidance and will not follow my sunnah. There will be amongst them men who will have the hearts of devil and bodies of humans.” He (Hudhaifah asked) “What shall I do, o Messenger of Allaah if I reach that?” He replied, “you should hear and obey the ruler even if he flogs your backs and takes your wealth, then still hear and obey.” Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans Vol 3/1029/34554)
Narrated Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman: “Subay’ ibn Khalid said: I came to Kufah at the time when Tustar was conquered. I took some mules from it. When I entered the mosque (of Kufah), I found there some people of moderate stature, and among them was a man whom you could recognize when you saw him that he was from the people of Hijaz. I asked: Who is he? The people frowned at me and said: Do you not recognize him? This is Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, the companion of the Apostle of Allaah (peace_be_upon_him). Then Hudhayfah said: People used to ask the Apostle of Allaah (peace_be_upon_him) about good, and I used to ask him about evil. Then the people stared hard at him. He said: I know the reason why you dislike it. I then asked: Apostle of Allaah, will there be evil as there was before, after this good which Allaah has bestowed on us? He replied: Yes. I asked: Wherein does the protection from it lie? He replied: In the sword. I asked: Apostle of Allaah, what will then happen? He replied: If Allaah has on Earth a caliph who flays your back and takes your property, obey him, otherwise die holding onto the stump of a tree. I asked: What will come next? He replied: Then the Antichrist (Dajjaal) will come forth accompanied by a river and fire. He who falls into his fire will certainly receive his reward, and have his load taken off him, but he who falls into his river will have his load retained and his reward taken off him. I then asked: What will come next? He said: The Last Hour will come. (Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 35, Trials and Fierce Battles (Kitab Al-Fitan Wa Al-Malahim), Number 4232)”
 Imam al Barbahaaree (d. 329H) said, “Whoever rebels against a Muslim ruler is one of the Khawaarij, has caused dissent within the Muslims, has contradicted the narrations and has died the death of the days of ignorance.” (Sharhus-Sunnah [p.42])
The Khawaarij are a group who first appeared in the time of ‘Alee (radiallaahu’anhu). They split from his army and began the grave innovation of takfeer (i.e. declaring Muslims, rulers or the ruled who are guilty of major sins, to be disbelievers). The Prophet MUHAMMAD (salallaahu’alayheewasallam) warned against them in many authentic Ahaadeeth, “The Khawaarij are the dogs of Hellfire.” (Reported by Ahmad and it is Saheeh.)
MUHAMMAD (salallaahu’alayheewasallam) also informed us that they would continue to appear until the end of this world, saying, “A group will appear reciting the Qur’an, it will not pass beyond their throats, every time a group appears it will be cut off, until the Dajjal appears within them.” (Reported by Ibn Maajah and it is Hasan.)
Al Barbahaaree (d. 329H) also said, “It is not permissible to fight the ruler or rebel against him even if he oppresses. This is due to the saying of the Messenger of Allah (salallaahu’alayheewasallam) to Abu Dharr al Ghifaaree, “Have patience, even if he (i.e. the Ameer) is an Abyssinian slave,” (Reported by Muslim.)
PROPHET MUHAMMAD (salallaahu’alayheewasallam) saying to the Ansaar, “Have patience until you meet me at the Pool,” (Reported by Bukharee from Usayd ibn Hudayr.)
 Ibn al Qayyim (d. 751H) said in Miftaah Daaris Sa’aadah (1/119), “And as for Imam Maalik, then Ibn al Qaasim said, “I heard Maalik say, ‘Indeed there are a people who desire worship but squander the Knowledge (being deprived of it) so they revolt against the Ummah of Muhammad (salallaahu’alayheewasallam) with their swords. And if they had followed the Knowledge, then it would have prevented them from doing that.”
 Shaykh Abdul Azeez Ibn Baaz, (hafidhahullaah) was asked, “Is it from the Manhaj (methodology) of the Salaf to criticise the Rulers from the mimbar (the pulpit)? And what is the Manhaj of the Salaf with respect to advising the Rulers? “He responded: “It is not from the Manhaj of the Salaf to publicise the faults of the Rulers and to mention such things from the pulpit because that leads to confusion/disorder and the absence of hearing and obeying the ruler in what is good. It also results in (the people) becoming engrossed (with these matters, arguing and debating) which causes harm and produces no benefit.
The followed Path with the Salaf, however is to give naseehah (advice) with respect to the matters which are between themselves and the leader, writing to him or by reaching him through the scholars who keep in touch with him (to advise him) until the ruler is directed towards the good. Repelling the evil occurs without mentioning the doer of the evil.
So fornication, drinking of intoxicants and the taking of usury are curbed without mentioning the one who does such things. Warding off the evil and warning and the people against it is sufficient without it being mentioned that such and such a person does it, whether he is a ruler or other than the ruler.
And when the fitnah occurred in the time of ‘Uthmaan Gani (radiallaahu’anhu), some of the people said to Usaamah ibn Zaid (radiallaahu’anhu), “Will you not speak to ‘Uthmaan?” So he replied, “You think that I will not talk to him without letting you know about it (also). Indeed, I will certainly talk to him regarding that which concerns me and him without initiating a matter which I do not love to be the first to initiate.”
And when they (the Khawaarij) opened up the evil in the time of ‘Uthmaan (radiallaahu’anhu) and rejected ‘Uthmaan openly, the fitnah, the killing and the mischief, which has not ceased to affect the people to this day, was brought about. And this caused the fitnah to occur between ‘Alee and Mu’aawiyyah and ‘Uthmaan (radiallaahu’anhu) was killed for these reasons.
(Futhermore) a large number of Companions and others besides them were killed due to this open rebellion and the open proclamation of the faults (of the ruler), until the people began to hate the one charged with authority over them and killed him. We ask Allah for success.” [These were the words of the Shaykh Abdul Azeez Ibn Baaz, (hafidhahullaah). Taken from Al-Ma’loom min Waajib il-‘Ilaaqah bain al Haakim wal-Mahkoom, (pp. 22-23).]
It is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah Muhammad (salallaahu’alayheewasallam) in the Ahaadeeth of ‘Iyaad Ibn Ghunum who said, “The Messenger of Allaah Muhammad (salallaahu’alayheewasallam) said, “Whoever desires to advise the one with authority then he should not do so openly, rather he should take him by the hand and take him into seclusion (and then advise him). And if he accepts (the advice) from him then (he has achieved his objective) and if not, then he has fulfilled that which was a duty upon him.” (Reported by Ahmad (3/403) and Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (2/521) with a Saheeh isnaad.)
When changing the evil of the rulers, then this should be done by the scholars and not openly as is mentioned by a clear Ahaadeeth of the Prophet (salallaahu’alayheewasallam), “When you wish to correct the sultan then take him by the hand in secret and advise him.” [Aqeedah at Tahawiyah]
There is no fighting against the ruler in the Sunnah. It causes destruction of the Religion and the worldly affairs.”
[Sharhus-Sunnah, (p. 43).]
 It is also related by Ibn Sa’ad in Tabaqaatul Kubraa (7/163-165) A group of Muslims came to al Hasan al Basree (d. 110H) seeking a verdict to rebel against al Hajjaaj . So they said, “O Abu Sa’eed! What do you say about fighting this oppressor who has unlawfully spilt blood and unlawfully taken wealth and did this and that?”
So al Hasan said, “I hold that he should not be fought. If this is the punishment from Allah (Ta’aala), then you will not be able to remove it with your swords. If this is a trial from Allah (Ta’aala), then be patient until Allah’s Judgement comes, and He is the best of Judges.”
So they left Al Hasan, disagreed with him and rebelled against al Hajjaaj – so al Hajjaaj killed them all.
Hajjaaj wasath Thaqafee, and is well known. Adh Dhahabee said in Siyar A’lamin Nubalaa (4/343) at the end of his biography, “We revile him and do not love him, rather we hate him for Allah (Ta’aala). He had some good deeds, but they are drowned in the ocean of his sins, and his affair is for Allah!”
About them al Hasan used to say, “If the people had patience, when they were being tested by their unjust ruler, it will not be long before Allah (Ta’aala) will give them a way out. However, they always rush for their swords, so they are left to their swords. By Allah! Not even for a single day did they bring about any good.”
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “People should give up their pride in nations because that is a Coal from the Coals of Hell-Fire.” (Abu Dawud & Tirmidhi)
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “He is not one of us who calls for asabiyyah, (nationalism) or who fights for asabiyyah or who dies for asabiyyah.” (Abu Dawud)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The Muslim Ummah is a unique Ummah among the whole of mankind: Their Land is one, their War is one, their Peace is one, their Honor is one and their Trust is one.” (Ahmed)
The Messenger of Allah SAW said, “The best of generations is my generation (Sahaabah), then those who come after them (Taabi’oon) and then those who come after them (Atba’ at-Taabi’oon)”
A man came to al-Hasan [al-Basri] (d.110H) and said, “I wish to debate with you about the Religion.” Al-Hasan replied, “I know my Religion. If you have lost your Religion go out and look for it!” [Sahih in Ibn Battah]